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Flashcards in Side effects Deck (63):
1

Penicillins

GI upset, C-diff due to broad action
10% have allergic reaction

2

Cephalosporins

GI upset, C-diff risk + risk of CNS toxicity and seizures

3

Trimethoprim

GI upset, rare hypersensitivity reactions
Can impair haematopoiesis - haematological disorders
Hyperkalaemia and raised plasma creatinine

4

Nitrofurantoin

GI upset, rare hypersensitivity reactions
Turns urine dark yellow/brown
Rare chronic pulmonary reactions, hepatitis and peripheral neuropathy
Neonates - haemolytic anaemia

5

Tetracyclines

GI upset, but amongst lowest risk for C-diff
Oesophageal irritation, ulceration, dysphagia, photosensitivity, tooth enamel discolouration

6

Aminoglycosides

Nephrotoxicity and Ototoxicity as they accumulate in renal tubular epithelial cells and cochlear/vestibular hari cells

7

Macrolides

GI upset when oral and thrombophlebitis when IV
Allergy, C-diff, QT prolongation and ototxicity

8

Quinolones

Generally well tolerated - GI upset and some delayed hypersensitivity reactions
Can have neurological effects, rupture muscle tendons, and prolong QT interval

9

Metronidazole

GI upset, hypersensitivity
At high doses - neuro effects, peripheral and optic neuropathy, seizures and encephalopathy

10

Glycopeptides

Thrombophlebitis, severe anaphylactoid reactions (Red man syndrome - due to non-specific degranulation of mast cells)

11

NSAIDs

GI toxicity, Renal Impairment, CV events, hypersensitivity and fluid retention

12

Codiene

Nausea, Constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, neurological and respiratory depression in overdose

13

Morphine

High dose = Resp and neuro depression, euphoria and detachment
Pupillary restriction, constipation,
Itching, urticaria, vasodilation and sweating - histamine release

14

Paracetamol

Generally very safe - lack of COX1 inhibition means no ulcers, RI or CV events

15

Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors

Generally well tolerated but a skin rash could indicate a hypersensitivity reaction such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome

16

Alpha-Blockers

Postural Hypotension, dizziness and syncope

17

5-alpha-reductase Inhibitors

Anti-androgen effect can cause impotence, reduced libido, breast tenderness, hair growth - breast cancer reported

18

L-dopa

Any dopaminergic drug can cause drowsiness, nausea, confusion, hallucinations and hypotension

19

Phenytoin

Long term - skin coarsening, acne, hirsutism and gum hypertrophy
Dose related cerebellar toxicity and impaired cognition

20

Carbemazepine

GI upset, neurological effects, oedema and hyponatraemia
Antiepileptic hypersensitivity syndrome - Stevens Johnson syndrome

21

Sodium Valproate

GI upset, neurological/psychiatric effects, thrombocytopenia and increase in liver enzymes

22

Lamotrigine

Antiepileptic hypersensitivity syndrome

23

Levetiracetam

Nasopharyngitis, somnolence (Sleepiness), headache, fatigue and dizziness

24

Tricyclics

Dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision - muscarinic
Sedation and hypotension - H1 and a1 receptors
Arrythmias and ECG changes

25

SSRI's

GI upset, appetite and weight disturbance, hypersensitivity and hyponatraemia
Can increase suicidal thoughts and behaviours
Serotonin syndrome - triad of autonomic hyperactivity, altered mental state and neuromuscular excitation

26

Benzodiazepines

Drowsiness, sedation and coma
Loss of airway reflexes
Withdrawal symptoms when stopped

27

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

Diarrhoea, muscle cramps, fatigue, nausea, vomiting and insomnia

28

Antacids

Diarrhoea + Constipation

29

H2 antagonists

Bowel disturbance, headaches and dizziness

30

PPI

GI disturbance and headaches, can reduce barrier against C-diff

31

Loperamide

Constipation

32

Laxatives

Abdo pain/cramps and diarrhoea

33

Aminosalicylates

GI upset and headache, can cause rare but serious blood disorders - leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and renal impairment

34

Antiemetics

Diarrhoea and can be extra-pyramidal symptoms

35

Loop diuretics

Dehydration, hypotension, loss of Na, K, Cl, Mg, Ca

36

Thiazide Diuretics

Hyponatraemia, hypokalaemia

37

Potassium Sparing Diuretics

Hyperkalaemia - muscle weakness, cardiac dysrhythmias
Gynaecomastia, liver impairent, jaundice and Stevens Johnson Syndrome

38

Beta-blockers

Fatigue, cold extremities, headache and GI disturbance
Bronchoconstriction

39

Calcium Blockers

Ankle swelling, flushing, headache, palpitations

40

ACE Inhibitors

Hypotension, cough, hyperkalaemia

41

AT1 Blockers

Hypotension, hyperkalaemia, renal failure

42

Nitrates

Flushing, headaches, light-headedness and hypotension

43

Cardiac Glycosides

Bradycardia, GI disturbance, rash, dizziness, visual disturbance
Low Therapeutic Range

44

Amiodarone

Few side effects acutely - hypotension during infusion
Chronically - Pneumonitis, bradycardia, AV block, hepatitis, photosensitivity and greying of skin

45

Aspirin

GI irritation, hypersensitivity reactions (bronchospasm), tinnitus

46

Clopidogrel

Bleeding, GI upset, rare = thrombocytopenia

47

Heparin

Bleeding and rarely thrombocytopenia

48

NOACs

Bleeding, back pain, dizziness, headache, menorrhagia,

49

Warfarin

Bleeding

50

Statins

Generally safe - headaches, GI upset or myopathy/ rhabdomyolosis

51

Beta-2-agonists

Tachycardia, palpitations, anxiety, tremor
Promote glycogenolysis - hyperglycaemia

52

Anticholinergics

Dry mouth

53

Corticosteroids

Increased catabolism can lead to proximal muscle wasting and skin thinning
Mood and behaivour changes, hypertension, hypokalaemia, oedema

54

Mucolytics

Anaphylaxis, allergic rashes and GI bleeding

55

Theophylline

Nausea, GI upset, Palpitations, Tachycardia, Arrythmias, Convulsions and headaches

56

Insulin

Hypoglycaemia - coma and death

57

Sulfonylureas

Weight gain due to anabolic nature of insulin which can lead to greater resistance
GI upset, hypoglycaemia, rare hypersensitivity reactions

58

Biguanides

Reduces weight gain
GI upset, lactic acidosis is rare,

59

Thyroxine

Similar effects to hyperthyroidism
Can precipitate cardiac ischaemia in those with coronary artery disease as increases HR and metabolism

60

Carbimazole

Nausea, headache arthralgia, GI upset, skin rashes, taste disturbance, fever, malaise

61

Bisphosphonates

Oesophagitis, hypophosphataemia, rare - osteonecrosis of the jaw

62

Calcium and Vit D

Oral calcium - dyspepsia and constipation
IV - Cardiovascular collapse if given too fast

63

Mineralicorticoids

Water retention, hypertension, hypokalaemia, weak bones, stomach ulcers, slow wound healing, thin skin, headaches and trouble sleeping