Sievert: Cranial Primordia, skull, face, and scalp Flashcards Preview

Block 5 Week 1 Meg > Sievert: Cranial Primordia, skull, face, and scalp > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sievert: Cranial Primordia, skull, face, and scalp Deck (84):
1

Ectodermal thickenings that form structures for some of our special senses

placodes

2

List three important placodes

olfactory placode
lens placode
otic placode

3

The nasal placode is induced by the adjacent (blank) of the forebrain

olfactory bulb

4

The nasal placode forms the primary (blank) - the cells of smell grow into the olfactory bulb through the (blank) bone

olfactory epithelium; ethmoid bone

5

An outpocketing of the forebrain induces a thickening of the surface ectoderm which will form the (blank) placode or vesicle

lens placode

6

The otic placode forms what two things? So basically, what does the otic placode form up?

membranous labyrinth and sensory neurons of cranial nerve VIII; the inner ear!

7

The inner ear develops fairly slowly. Why is this important to consider?

may be susceptible to environmental defects

8

What does the middle ear cavity form from?

the adjacent 1st pharyngeal pouch lined by endoderm

9

Masses of mesorderm that form skeletal muscles

somites

10

(blank) somites form muscles that move the eye, but not muscles of the iris or the lens. (blank) somites form muscles of the tongue.

preotic; postotic

11

Masses of mesenchyme tissue that flank the developing gut

pharyngeal arches

12

When do pharyngeal arches appear around the developing gut?

4th-5th week

13

Each pharyngeal arch consists of a core of mesenchyme surrounded by (blank) on the outside and (blank) on the inside.

ectoderm; endoderm

14

What exists in the core of pharyngeal arches to contribute to skeletal components of the face?

neural crest cells

15

List the pharyngeal arch derivatives

muscle
bone or cartilage
skin from the overlying ectoderm
lining of the gut from the lining endoderm

16

Each pharyngeal arch forms (blank) or (blank)

cartilage; bone

17

The maxillary process forms what three things?

maxilla
zygomatic bone
part of the temporal bone

18

The madibular process forms what three things?

mandible
malleus
incus

19

The second arch, or the hyoid arch, forms what things?

lesser horn of hyoid bone
styloid process
stapes

20

What does the third arch form?

the rest of the hyoid bone

21

What do the 4th and 6th arches fuse to form?

the laryngeal cartilages

22

What muscles are derived from the first pharyngeal arch?

muscles of mastication

23

What muscles are derived from the second pharyngeal arch?

muscles of facial expression

24

What muscle is derived from the third pharyngeal arch?

stylopharyngeus

25

What muscles are derived from the 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches?

muscles of the pharynx, larynx, and palate

26

What innervates the endoderm lining each pharyngeal arch?

the nerve of that arch

27

What does the first pharyngeal pouch form?

middle ear
auditory/eustachian tube

28

What does the second pharyngeal pouch form?

palatine tonsil

29

What does the third pharyngeal pouch form?

thymus
inferior parathyroid glands

30

What does the fourth pharyngeal pouch form?

superior parathyroid glands

31

What does the fifth pharyngeal pouch form?

C cells of the thyroid gland

32

What are the three cranial nerves to placodes?

1, 2, 8

33

What are the four cranial nerves to somites?

3, 4, 6, 12

34

What are the four cranial nerves to branchial arches?

5, 7, 9, 10

35

Which cranial nerve is associated with the olfactory placode?

cranial nerve 1 - olfactory

36

Which cranial nerve is associated with the optic vesicle?

cranial nerve 2 - optic

37

Which cranial nerves are associated with preotic somites (3)?

cranial nerve 3 - oculomotor
cranial nerve 4 - trochlear
cranial nerve 6 - abducens

38

Which cranial nerve is associated with branchial arch 1?

cranial nerve 5 - trigeminal

39

Which cranial nerve is associated with branchial arch 2?

cranial nerve 7 - facial

40

Which cranial nerve is associated with the otic placode?

cranial nerve 8 - vestibulocochlear

41

Which cranial nerve is associated with branchial arch 3?

cranial nerve 9 - glossopharyngeal

42

Which cranial nerve is associated with branchial arch 4?

cranial nerve 10 - vagus

43

Which cranial nerve is associated with branchial arch 6?

cranial nerve 10 - vagus

44

Which cranial nerve is associated with postotic somites?

cranial nerve 12 - hypoglossal

45

What four things may spinal nerves contain?

general sensory (GSA)
viscerosensory (GVA)
somatomotor (GSE)
visceromotor (GVE)

46

Potential cranial nerve components. Give an example of each:
1. Special somatosensory
2. General somatosensory
3. General viscerosensory
4. Special viscerosensory
5. visceromotor
6. somatomotor
7. branchiomotor

1. vision and balance/hearing
2. skin
3. gut
4. taste buds/nasal placode
5. autonomic
6. muscles from somites
7. muscles from branchial arches

47

Cell bodies of nuclei are organized. All motor neurons of cranial nerves are in the (blank). All sensory neurons of cranial nerves 3-12 are in ganglia except which?

brainstem; except for the proprioceptive fibers for the face

48

What is the order of columns within the alar plate (from lateral to medial)?

special somatosensory
general somatosensory
general and special viscerosensory

49

What is the order of columns within the basal plate (from lateral to medial)?

somatomotor
branchiomotor
visceromotor

50

Which cranial nerves have somatomotor components?

3, 4, 6, 12

51

Which cranial nerves have visceromotor components?

3, 7, 9, 10

52

Which cranial nerves have branchiomotor components?

5, 7, 9, 10

53

Which cranial nerves have special sensory components?

1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10

54

Which cranial nerves have general sensory components?

5, 7, 9, 10

55

Which cranial nerves have visceral sensory components?

9, 10

56

Which cranial nerves include taste?

7, 9, 10

57

Which cranial nerve has neurons that are not in the brainstem, but may have somato and branchio components?

cranial nerve 11

58

What are the three components of the sensory innervation of the face and scalp?

trigeminal nerve
dorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves (greater occipital nerve)
branches from cervical plexus (ventral rami)

59

What are the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve?

ophthalmic division (V1)
maxillary division (V2)
mandibular division (V3)

60

What are the three foramina and what branches do they transmit?

1. supraorbital foramen for supraorbital nerve from V1
2. infraorbital foramen for infraorbital nerve from V2
3. mental foramen for mental nerve from V3

61

What is a distinguishing feature of the medulla?

pyramids

62

What are two distinguishing features of the pons?

1. pyramids are sunken into the pontine gray
2. there is a mass of cells whose axons form the middle cerebellar peduncle

63

In the midbrain, the corticospinal, corticobulbar, and corticopontine fibers are collected into a bundle known as the (blank), which gives the midbrain an easily recognizable look.

cerebral peduncle

64

Where do cranial nerves 5, 6, 7, 8 exit the brainstem?

PONS

65

Where do 9, 10, 11, 12 exit the brainstem?

medulla

66

Where do 3 and 4 exit the brainstem?

midbrain

67

Where do cranial nerves 1 and 2 emerge from?

cerebrum or forebrain

68

In general, motor nuclei are present (blank), and sensory nuclei are present (blank).

ventrally; dorsally

69

The muscles of facial expression are derived from which pharyngeal arch? Where do this muscles insert? What do they produce? What other function do they have?

2; insert into the skin; produce facial expressions; protective function

70

What are the terminal branches of cranial nerve 7?

temporal
zygomatic
buccal
mandibular
cervical

**ten zebras bought my car

71

The terminal branches of cranial nerve 7 pass through what structure?

parotid gland

72

The terminal branches of the 7th cranial nerve exit via the (blank) foramen, and are mostly (blank)

stylomastoid foramen; motor

73

The facial motor nucleus is in the (blank) column and sends its axons on a circuitous route over the (blank) nucleus to exit with the facial nerve from the caudal pons.

branchiomotor; abducens

74

The motor fibers from the facial motor nucleus leave the nucleus and arch over the top of the (blank) nucleus before exiting on the facial nerve. The facial nerve has an interesting route through the skull. Why is this important?

abducens; the facial nerve can be damaged at many places and the symptoms vary depending on the place

75

As the facial nerve leaves the stylomastoid foramen, what component is affected if it is damaged?

SVE

76

What is this: the muscles of facial expression are paralyzed, so all of the muscles on that side of the face are involved.

Bell's palsy

77

What are the superficial arterial branches of the head?

external carotid artery
internal carotid artery (**via ophthalmic artery)

78

What are the external carotid artery branches?

superficial temporal
facial/angular

79

What are the internal carotid artery branches?

supraorbital
supratrochlear
**numerous anastomoses between branches

80

List the layers of the scalp from superficial to deep

skin
CT
aponeuroses
loose CT
pericranium

81

The first 3 layers of the scalp are usually considered the (blank). Which layer has numerous arteries anastomosing? Why is this significant? Which layer is considered the danger space? Why?

scalp proper; CT layer; significance for bleeding; loose CT layer; can lead to spread of infection

82

Skull
Thin/pliable bones?
Sutures?
Fontanels?

frontal, parietal, occipital;
sagittal, coronal, lambdoid;
anterior, posterior

83

Premature suture closure
occurs in 1/2500 births
found in >100 genetic syndromes

craniosynostosis

84

Scaphocephaly involves which suture?
Brachycephaly or oxycephaly involves which sutures?

sagittal suture; coronal and lambdoid sutures