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Clotting Disorders > Signs and Symptoms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Signs and Symptoms Deck (9)
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What are the symptoms for a personal history of bleeding?

- Bruising: unexpected places, no injury, lumpy
- Surgical history, dental history (ask about family also), cuts and injuries
- Epistaxis: duration and frequency i.e. >30 mins
- GI tract: start at mouth and work down to anus
- Menses: duration, flooding/clots, no. of pads/tampons per period
- Urine: haematuria


What part of a FH would be signs of a clotting disorder?

- Known bleeding disorders
- Bleeding/abnormal bruising in family members, especially after surgery or dentistry
- If there is, get details of where tested, by whom and when


What does bruising in a child mean?

Any bruising/bleeding in a non-ambulant child must be considered non-accidental until proven otherwise, due to safety first policy.


What is Virchow's triad?

1. Stasis of blood flow
2. Endothelial injury
3. Hypercoagulability


What would be the examination findings for DVT?

- Warm, swollen leg
- Tenderness in calf > worse with dorsiflexion of ankle (Homan's sign)
- Calf circumference greater than 3cm compared with unaffected leg - measure 10cm from tibial tuberosity on each leg and mark this


What are the typical symptoms for a PE?

- Sudden onset of pleuritic chest pain (worse on inspiration)
- Haemoptysis
- Syncope


What are the signs of PE?

- Tachypnoea
- Tachyarrhythmia (commonest is AF)
- Possible signs of DVT
- Hypotension
- Pleural effusion
- Hypoxaemia
- Raised JVP


What are platelet disorder signs?

- Bruising
- Bleeding after dental/minor surgery
- Epistaxis
- Menorrhagia


What is the presentation of haemophilia A?

Depends on severity and it’s often early in life or after surgery/trauma - with bleeds into joints leading to crippling arthropathy and into muscles causing haematomas (increase pressure > nerve palsies and compartment syndrome).
It is diagnosed by increased APTT and decreased factor VIII assay.