Flashcards in Skin & soft tissue Deck (57):
Summary of Skin & Soft tissue pathology
- Viral, Bacterial, Fungal
Diseases of head/neck
Inflammatory conditions of skin & eye
- BCC, SCC, Melanocytic naevi, Melanoma
The skin is highly colonised. By which organisms?
S. Aureas (pathogenic potential)
Coagulase -ve Staphylococci
Skin/soft tissue infections can be localised or systemic. How can a localised infection occur?
Innoculation of contaminated object
Contamination of pre-existing skin lesion
S. Aureas in addition to causing inflammation, can release EXOTOXINS. Which ones?
Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)
This virus has a 1" infection of chickenpox and a 2" inection of shingles.
Type of herpes virus
Treatment of VZV infection?
This virus has a 1" infection in infants as mouth lesion and 2" infection of vesicular mouth/genital lesion.
Raised pearly lesions + umbilicated = ?
Name the 4 common bacteria responsible for skin infections?
Infection of epidermis + Plaque-like lesions + Yellow exudate = ?
Bacteria that cause Impetigo?
The complications of Impetigo are caused by ETA A/B. What are they?
SSSS (like burns)
Infection of dermis + caused by S. pyrogenes = ?
How does Erysipelas present?
4 cardinal signs
Infection of skin + subcutaneous tissue = ?
Caused by ALL 4 bacteria
Presentation of Cellulitis?
4 cardinal signs
Cellulitis has many diffrentials e.g. Acute arthritis, hypersensitivity reaction, DVT, necrotising fasciitis. What is the treatment?
Infection of skin + subcutaneous tissue + 2 types = ?
Type 1: Polymicrobial
Type 2: S. pyrogenes.
What is the treatment for necrotising fasciitis?
IV antibiotics (Meropenem + Clindamycin)
Gas gangrene is a type of anaerobic infection (uncommon). Which sites do they tend to infect?
Gas gangrene is caused by C. perfringens. Treatment?
List common fungal skin infections
Tinea corporis - ringworm
Tinea pedia - athlete's foot
Tinea cruris - groin
Tinea capitus - scalp ringworm
The 2 most common risk factors for carcinoma of the oral cavity and larynx are..?
The name of the autoimmune muco-cutaneous condition that has Wickman's striae?
Vocal cord polyps are benign and see in ...?
Nasal polyps arise from recurrent rhinitis. Large polyps can lead to..?
Cholestastoma is ass. with chronic otitis media. What is it?
= abnormal non-neoplastic skin growth
--> hearing loss
Otosclerosis = abnormal bone deposition in middle ear. presentation?
slow progression --> hearing loss
Labrynthitis is inflamm of middle ear. T/F?
= inflamm of inner ear
Ear carcinomas can occur in external ear (BCC, SCC) or the ear canal (SCC). Which one is linked to sun exposure?
External ear (pinna) carcinomas
The most common tumour of middle ear which is benign but locally aggressive?
Keratitis + Conjunctivitis can be caused by..?
Condition where lens become opaque + ass with DM, Down's, Rubella...
Retinal infections are caused by cat/dog faeces, called?
List 3 caused of retinal vascular D.
MD = damage to central part of vision. What are the 2 types?
Dry MD* - progressive
Wet MD - new vessel growth under retina
Retinoblastoma & UVeal Melanoma are example of..?
2 types of Dermatitis?
Contact - Irritant, Allergic
Autoimmune + red oval plaques + silvery scale + Ausoitz sign
ass. with AD
L.E is an autoimmune conn tissue condition. What are the types?
Discoid LE - skin only
SLE - visceral +/- skin
Dermatomyositis can be mistaken for SLE. What is it ass with?
UNDERLYING VISCERAL CANCER ~25%
Presentation of dermatomyositis?
State 3 bullous D.
Which Bullous D is small intensely itchy + ass. with Coeliac + youth?
Most common type of Porphyria = ?
Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
= porphyria build-up from enzyme def
Is PCT mostly congenital or acquired?
80% ACQUIRED from Hep C
(Tissue damage when exposed to sun)
What is the most common malignancy in the UK?
Basal cell Carcinoma (BCC)
BCC appears as nodule/ulcer often in sun-exposed sites. Risk factors?
(RT, Immunosuppression, Gorlin;s)
SCC = nodule with ulcerated surface. What is the pre-malignant condition?
Risk factors for SCC?
(immunosuppression, renal transplant, drugs, chronic ulcers)
Giant Congenital Naevi, Mongolian spot & Dysplastic naevus syndrome fall under the umbrella of..?
(2 have increased risk of melanoma)
Melanocytes are from neural crest cells and protect cells from UV. T/F?
Melanoma is a dangerous malignancy. Is it more common than BCC/ SCC?
Rarer - rising incidence
4 risk factors of Melanoma
Race - fair
FH - dysplastic naevus syndrome
Giant congenital naevi
The most common type of Melanoma is UK?