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Flashcards in Skin & soft tissue Deck (57):
1

Summary of Skin & Soft tissue pathology

SSTI
- Viral, Bacterial, Fungal

Diseases of head/neck

Inflammatory conditions of skin & eye

Skin tumours
- BCC, SCC, Melanocytic naevi, Melanoma

2

The skin is highly colonised. By which organisms?

S. Aureas (pathogenic potential)
Coagulase -ve Staphylococci
Corynebacterium spp
Propionibacterium

3

Skin/soft tissue infections can be localised or systemic. How can a localised infection occur?

Innoculation of contaminated object

Contamination of pre-existing skin lesion

4

S. Aureas in addition to causing inflammation, can release EXOTOXINS. Which ones?

EDT A/B
TSST-1
Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)

5

This virus has a 1" infection of chickenpox and a 2" inection of shingles.

VZV

Type of herpes virus

6

Treatment of VZV infection?

Oral/IV Aciclovir

7

This virus has a 1" infection in infants as mouth lesion and 2" infection of vesicular mouth/genital lesion.

HSV

Topical/Oral Aciclovir

8

Raised pearly lesions + umbilicated = ?

Molluscum Contangiosum

Common

9

Name the 4 common bacteria responsible for skin infections?

S. Aureas
S. Pyrogens
H. Influenzae
Pasteurella Multocida

10

Infection of epidermis + Plaque-like lesions + Yellow exudate = ?

Impetgio

11

Bacteria that cause Impetigo?

S Aurea
S. Pyrogenes

12

The complications of Impetigo are caused by ETA A/B. What are they?

SSSS (like burns)
Bullous Impetigo

13

Infection of dermis + caused by S. pyrogenes = ?

Erysipelas

14

How does Erysipelas present?

Fever
4 cardinal signs
LN involvement

15

Infection of skin + subcutaneous tissue = ?

Cellulitis

Caused by ALL 4 bacteria

16

Presentation of Cellulitis?

Fever
4 cardinal signs
UNILATERAL

17

Cellulitis has many diffrentials e.g. Acute arthritis, hypersensitivity reaction, DVT, necrotising fasciitis. What is the treatment?

Flucloxicillin

18

Infection of skin + subcutaneous tissue + 2 types = ?

Necrotising fasciitis

19

Type 1: Polymicrobial
Type 2: S. pyrogenes.

What is the treatment for necrotising fasciitis?

IV antibiotics (Meropenem + Clindamycin)

Surgical debridement

20

Gas gangrene is a type of anaerobic infection (uncommon). Which sites do they tend to infect?

Post-amputation site
Post-op

21

Gas gangrene is caused by C. perfringens. Treatment?

Metronidazole
Surgical debidement

(anaerobic)

22

List common fungal skin infections

Tinea corporis - ringworm
Tinea pedia - athlete's foot
Tinea cruris - groin
Tinea capitus - scalp ringworm
Onycomycosis

23

The 2 most common risk factors for carcinoma of the oral cavity and larynx are..?

Both SCC

SMOKING
ALCOHOL

24

The name of the autoimmune muco-cutaneous condition that has Wickman's striae?

Lichen planus

25

Vocal cord polyps are benign and see in ...?

Heavy drinkers
Singers

26

Nasal polyps arise from recurrent rhinitis. Large polyps can lead to..?

2" Sinusitis

27

Cholestastoma is ass. with chronic otitis media. What is it?

= abnormal non-neoplastic skin growth

--> hearing loss

28

Otosclerosis = abnormal bone deposition in middle ear. presentation?

Bilateral
Young (familial)
slow progression --> hearing loss

29

Labrynthitis is inflamm of middle ear. T/F?

F

= inflamm of inner ear
Bacteria/Viral causes

30

Ear carcinomas can occur in external ear (BCC, SCC) or the ear canal (SCC). Which one is linked to sun exposure?

External ear (pinna) carcinomas

31

The most common tumour of middle ear which is benign but locally aggressive?

Paragangliomas

32

Keratitis + Conjunctivitis can be caused by..?

VZV
Chlamydia

33

Condition where lens become opaque + ass with DM, Down's, Rubella...

Cataracts

34

Retinal infections are caused by cat/dog faeces, called?

Toxoplasma
Toxocara canis

35

List 3 caused of retinal vascular D.

Ischaemia
Hypertensive retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy

36

MD = damage to central part of vision. What are the 2 types?

Dry MD* - progressive

Wet MD - new vessel growth under retina

37

Retinoblastoma & UVeal Melanoma are example of..?

Eye tumours

38

2 types of Dermatitis?

Atopic
Contact - Irritant, Allergic

39

Autoimmune + red oval plaques + silvery scale + Ausoitz sign

Psoriasis

40

Psoriasis causes?

FH
Environmental triggers
ass. with AD

41

L.E is an autoimmune conn tissue condition. What are the types?

Discoid LE - skin only
SLE - visceral +/- skin

42

Dermatomyositis can be mistaken for SLE. What is it ass with?

UNDERLYING VISCERAL CANCER ~25%

43

Presentation of dermatomyositis?

Peri-oribtal oedema
Facial rash
Muscle weakness

44

State 3 bullous D.

Pemphigus
Bullous Pemphigoid
Dermatitis Herpetiformis

45

Which Bullous D is small intensely itchy + ass. with Coeliac + youth?

Dermatitis Herpetiformis

IgA deposition

46

Most common type of Porphyria = ?

PCT
Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

= porphyria build-up from enzyme def

47

Is PCT mostly congenital or acquired?

80% ACQUIRED from Hep C

(Tissue damage when exposed to sun)

48

What is the most common malignancy in the UK?

Basal cell Carcinoma (BCC)

49

BCC appears as nodule/ulcer often in sun-exposed sites. Risk factors?

SUN-EXPOSURE

(RT, Immunosuppression, Gorlin;s)

50

SCC = nodule with ulcerated surface. What is the pre-malignant condition?

Actinic Keratosis

51

Risk factors for SCC?

SUN-EXPOSURE

(immunosuppression, renal transplant, drugs, chronic ulcers)

52

Giant Congenital Naevi, Mongolian spot & Dysplastic naevus syndrome fall under the umbrella of..?

Melanocytic naevi

(2 have increased risk of melanoma)

53

Melanocytes are from neural crest cells and protect cells from UV. T/F?

T

54

Melanoma is a dangerous malignancy. Is it more common than BCC/ SCC?

No
Rarer - rising incidence

55

4 risk factors of Melanoma

SUN-EXPOSURE
Race - fair
FH - dysplastic naevus syndrome
Giant congenital naevi

56

The most common type of Melanoma is UK?

Superficial spreading

57

Skin lesions can be a sign of sytemic D. Which skin lesions?

DERMATOMYOSITIS - Visceral Cancer

DERMATITIS HERPETIFORMIS - Coeliac D

ACANTHOSIS NIGRANA - Internal Malignancy
NECROBIOSIS LIPOIDA - Diabetes