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Hypersomnia is a type of sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness that is not a result of lack of sleep during the night, but rather a malfunction of the neurons responsible for sleeping and waking. 

Example: narcolepsy



Parasomnia represents the type of sleep disorder marked by anything abnormal that occurs during sleep. 

Examples: nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, sleeptalking, and tooth grinding. 


a nightmare

A nightmare is a dream that has frightening visual images and negative emotions strong enough to cause the dreamer to awaken feeling scared and anxious.

Nightmares, typical of dreams, can be recalled in the morning. 


a night terror 

A night terror is an episode in which the sleeper experiences frightening visual images, typically screams and cries, has their eyes open, says incoherrent words, and forms gestures. Upon waking, the sleeper often has elevated blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, and profuse sweating. 

Night terrors are not recalled in the morning and the sleeper normally wakes up feeling very confused. 

While night terrors are common in young children, they tend to disappear by adolescence. 


What are the differences between night terrors and nightmares?

The differences between night terrors and nightmares are:
  1. Nightmares are often recalled in the morning, while sufferers of night terrors have no recollection of the event.
  2. Nightmares occur more during REM sleep, while night terrors occur during stage 3 and 4 of non-REM.


What are the five major neurotransmitters involved with inducing a state of wakefulness?

The five major neurotransmitters involved with inducing a state of wakefulness are:

  1. Serotonin
  2. Histamine
  3. Norepinephrine
  4. Acetylcholine
  5. Glutamate