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Flashcards in small intestine Deck (20):
1

______ is the area where most digestion and absorption of food occurs

small intestine

2

what are the 3 major regions of the small intestine

What contains Duodenal glands *brunner's glands* which secrete alkaline mucus neutralize stomach acid

Duodenum
*these guys contain the Brunner/Duodenal glands responsible for neutralizing stomach acids

Jejunum

Ileum

3

This is the intestinal lining folds which greatly increase the surface area for digestion and absorption...

Plicae circulares

4

Difference between Villi and Microvilli (Brush Border)?

Villi are the finger-like projections on the mucosa of small intestine... and Microvilli (brush border) are the projections on the Villi... further increasing SA

5

What are the two brush border enzymes?

What are their respective roles?

Enteropepidase: Digestion of proteins


Lactase:
Digestion of carbohydrates

6

This organ is the second largest in the body? (skin is largest)

The liver

7

_______ are the primary functional cells of the liver...

these guys are also arranged into units called

Hepatocytes... are arranged into functional units called liver lobules

8

What is the primary glandular function of liver?

The secretion of bile

9

What cells are responsible for secretion of bile? (what do they travel through)

Hepatocytes secrete Bile through the *bile canaliculi*

10

Talk about the flow of bile... beginning with the production from Hepatocytes

Bile Canaliculi --> Bile Duct --> Right or Left Hepatic Duct --> Cystic Duct/ Common Bile Duct --> Gall Bladder/ Duodenum respoectively...

**so cystic duct leads to gall bladder

**common bile duct leads to duodenum

11

What are Kupffer cells? Where are they located?

They are macrophages located in the liver

12

What most be present in the Duodenum in order for Bile to be secreted and enter the Duodenum?

Chyme

13

Metabolism consist of two processes...

Anabolism and Catabolism (define)

Anabolism --> is the building up of bigger molecules from smaller ones

Catabolism --> breaking down of bigger molecules into smaller ones

14

Carbohydrate is used mainly to produced what?

ATP

15

____is the breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm with final products... 2 pyruvic acid, net 2 atp and 2 reduced coenzyme

Glycolysis

16

Pyruvic acid enters into the Krebs cycle when

Oxygen is present

17

Pyruvic acid turns into _______ when there is no oxygen **think about sprinting**

Lactic acid

18

Glycogenesis is what?

Formation of Glycogen... basically seems that when sugar is not needed... it is for storage

19

Glyco-genolysis:

*hint look at word carefully*

Break down of glycogen into glucose... when there is shortage of glucose.

20

Gluco-neogenesis:

Synthesis of glucose from glycerol and amino acid