Small Ruminant - Endocrine/Metabolic Dz Flashcards Preview

LAIM: Endocrinology/Metabolic Disease > Small Ruminant - Endocrine/Metabolic Dz > Flashcards

Flashcards in Small Ruminant - Endocrine/Metabolic Dz Deck (6)
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List the common signalment of does and ewes which develop Pregnancy Toxaemia (aka Ketosis, Twin Lamb Dz).

- Last 2-4 weeks of gestation.
- Ewes carrying 2+ foetuses.
- Does carrying 3+ foetuses.


List risk factors for development of Pregnancy Toxaemia in small ruminants.

- Overconditioned prior to late gestation (thin ewes and does also at risk).
- Cold weather.
- Poor-quality feed.
- Lack of exercise.
- Stress of movement.


List clinical signs of Pregnancy Toxaemia in small ruminants.

- Animals separate themselves from the herd.
- Poor appetite.
- Many appear blind.
- Become depressed and recumbent.
- Neuro signs may precede terminal depression incl tremors, star gazing, inco-ord, circling, teeth grinding.
- Severe hepatic lipidosis may result.


Outline diagnostic test abnormalities in small ruminants with Pregnancy Toxaemia.

- Ketonuria is detectable before ketonaemia.
- BHB > 1mmol/L, FAs > 500uEq/L.
- Acidosis is often present.
- +/- hypoglycaemia.
- +/- hypoCa and hypoK.
- +/- azotemia in terminal cases.
- +/- marked neutrophilia.


Describe treatment of Pregnancy Toxaemia in small ruminants.

- Principles of tx: administer exogenous energy sources and remove factors inc energy demand (i.e. foetuses).
- Most important step: induce preg (dex in sheep; dex or Pg F2a in does) or caesarian (+ ABs/flunixin).
- IV glucose +/- oral propylene glycol.
- Correct acidosis and hypoCa if present.
- Recombinant bovine somatotropin has shown some benefit.


Describe strategies to prevent pregnancy toxaemia in small ruminants.

- Very important to address marked inc in energy requirement during third trimester of preg.
- Good to excellent quality forage for sheep.
- Monitor plasma BHB to dx underfeeding in ewes: 0.8 mmol/L or higher indicates need for inc energy consumption by preg ewes.
- Does demonstrate dec blood pH, bicarb conc and base excess values well in advance of CSx of preg tox.