SOC313: 4. Policing around the Globe Flashcards Preview

SOC313 > SOC313: 4. Policing around the Globe > Flashcards

Flashcards in SOC313: 4. Policing around the Globe Deck (89)
Loading flashcards...
1

Police

Modern specialised body of people who carry out much of the law enforcement functions in today’s societies

2

Police

Special body of agents that enforce the law
Should not be confused with policing
They do more than just policing

3

Policing

The attempt to maintain security through surveillance and the threat of sanction

4

Policing

One part of the role of police officers
From place to place, role of police in policing varies
In some cases can be carried out largely by police
Police is not the only people in society that can police

5

Other policing agents

Kano Hisbah in Nigeria
Religious police in Nigera - not government law enforcement agents
Religious beliefs force

6

Other policing agents

In Saudi, serve a policing function, but not police
Private Police - can be hard to distinguish
Contracted and paid separately

7

Other policing agents

Maltese Falcon - plays role of policing, ability to investigate crime
Surveillance Cameras - threat of a sanction and surveillance that replaces the police
It may not even work

8

Police Numbers

Most policed country- Monaco
Least policed country- Mali
Monaco- 1, 374/100 000 (500)
Mali- 48/100 000 (7000)

28/141 countries Canada
26 for Japan
72 for the US
75 for France
16 for China
38 England and Wales
Can be indicative of importance placed in law enforcement
Want to look at the ratio: tentative side of population determines the force of the police
Good first step

9

Police Numbers

-

10

Police Numbers

-

11

Police Numbers

-

12

Social Structure

Patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.

13

Social Structure

E.g. buggery laws - cultural values, religion, long term tradition adopted
History, media don't give you all answers
Look at constitution of society

14

Social Structure

Arrangements are stable unlike historical events or media reportage, but structure of media is more stable
People still create social structures, but once created they can be very firm and a powerful force that becomes tradition over time

15

Examples of Social Structures

Family
Religion - been there for thousands of years
Law
Economy - capitalism, communist

16

Examples of Social Structures

Class - stratification, how are resources distributed
Culture - Cultural practices
Geography - who you relate and interact with

17

Examples of Social Structures

Social and Political Institutions - Government structures
E.g. prime ministers may change, but the role (duties, powers) don't change, one that we adopted from the British
Play a role in creating laws and social control practices

18

Different Structures of Police

Centralised Single Systems- One national police force is responsible for enforcing a single set of laws throughout the entire country (i.e. Nigeria)
product of authoritarian political structures
many different stations, but all take orders from national government

19

Different Structures of Police

But he also says in futile periods we wouldn't see that
Contradiction
Argues there are 2 factors authoritarian and history
Contemporary state system - pattern of authoritarian rule creating decentralised single systems

20

Different Structures of Police

There are issues with Bailey's paper, but it is useful because of tradition
The argument he is making - policing are based on and often result out of tradition
Policing and its models carry traction - once firm, they stick

21

Different Structures of Police

Decentralised Single Systems- Single police force under decentralised command (i.e. Japan)
Decentralized Single Systems: one police force but have different posts report to different commanders

22

Different Structures of Police

Centralised Multiple Coordinated System- Multiple police forces across the country, however, they ultimately take orders from the national government (i.e. England and Wales, France). They all pursue the same goal.

23

Different Structures of Police

Decentralised Multiple Coordinated Systems- Several police forces under the command of different governmental levels (i.e. Canada). All pursuing the same goal.
national police force (RCMP), provincial police force (OPP), municipal police (TPC)

24

Different Structures of Police

In other places it's a regional police force
Some don't have their own police, they contract provincial police to become municipal police

25

Different Structures of Police

If no provincial police (New Brunswick), then contract RCMP
Dependent on resources and population, police will be different

26

Different Structures of Police

Centralised Multiple Uncoordinated Systems - Several independent police forces that are all administered by the national government (Italy). Each force pursuing different goals

27

Different Structures of Police

Decentralised Multiple Uncoordinated Systems - Several independent police forces administered by different governments. Each force pursuing different goals.

28

Aboriginal policing

has a force of their own
Once they go off reserve anywhere else they are no longer police officers unlike other police officers are still police anywhere in Canada

29

Aboriginal policing

Law - political structure - constitution act - law falls under responsibility of federal government
Enforcement of law was given to the provinces which they can delegate to the cities
We have a more robust system than US
Australia: don't have aboriginal force

30

Koban- Japan (Community Policing)

Police playing integrated role and involvement in community
Across entire country
Police boxes

31

Koban- Japan (Community Policing)

A two-storied house with a couple of rooms, with from one to more than ten police officers
Earliest Koban built back in 1874

32

Koban- Japan (Community Policing)

Functions carried out by police in koban include:
1. Maps and directions.
2. Lost and found.
3. Crime reports.
4. Emergency sevices

33

Koban- Japan (Community Policing)

Police officers knocks on door often - informal, invite you to events, bring you pamphlets
Other aspects that we wouldn't see here
Koban has been around, but community policing is recent

34

Koban- Japan (Community Policing)

Kobans played different role - became central authoritarian role to prevent rebellion and maintain control
Became more and more powerful - became authoritarian rule

35

Koban- Japan (Community Policing)

Architecture and structures of policing can endure despite changes in policing practices
In Canada:
Associated with law enforcement only

36

NYPD- Zero Tolerance Policing

Practices of stop question frisk - even if crime you suspect does not involve weapon
Wasn't adopted across the country

37

NYPD- Zero Tolerance Policing

Broken Windows Metaphor- If just one window is left unrepaired it sends the message that people do not care about the building. This breeds crime
i.e. Stop-Question-Frisk Program

38

English Policing

On 18 September 2012, Police Constables Nicola Hughes and Fiona Bone, two Greater Manchester Police officers, were killed by Dale Cregan in a gun and grenade attack while responding to a report of a burglary in Greater Manchester, England.

39

English Policing

The incident was the first in Great Britain in which two female police officers were killed on duty. Greater Manchester's chief constable Peter Fahy called the attack "cold-blooded murder"[3] and British prime minister David Cameron described it as a "despicable act...of pure evil". The deaths renewed the debate about whether British police officers should be armed.[4]

40

English Policing

British prime minister David Cameron described the attack as "a shocking reminder of the debt we owe to those who put themselves in danger to keep us safe and secure". Chief Constable of Greater Manchester Police Peter Fahy described the officers as "two very brave and courageous colleagues who exemplified the very best of British policing"

41

English Policing

We are passionate that the British style of policing is routinely unarmed policing. Sadly we know from the experience in America and other countries that having armed officers certainly does not mean, sadly, that police officers do not end up getting shot."

42

English Policing

A 2006 survey of 47,328 Police Federation members found 82% did not want officers to be routinely armed on duty, despite almost half saying their lives had been "in serious jeopardy" during the previous three years.
ACPO shares this sentiment
An ICM poll in April 2004 found 47% supported arming all police, compared with 48% against.

43

English Policing

ICM poll (see page two) [106KB]In 2007, the centre-right think-tank Policy Exchange found 72% of 2,156 adults wanted to see more armed police patrols.
"There's a general recognition that if the police are walking around with guns it changes things," says Richard Garside, director of the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies.
Arming the force would, say opponents, undermine the principle of policing by consent - the notion that the force owes its primary duty to the public, rather than to the state, as in other countries.

44

English Policing

This owes much to the historical foundations of British criminal justice, says Peter Waddington, professor of social policy at the University of Wolverhampton.
"A great deal of what we take as normal about policing was set out in the early 19th Century," he says.
Police use of firearms 2010-11
Authorised in 17,209 operations, says Home Office figures for England and Wales - a decrease of 1,347 (7%) on previous year

45

English Policing

6,653 authorised firearms officers - (5% decrease)
13,346 operations involving armed response vehicles (6% decrease)
Three incidents in which police discharged a conventional firearm (down from six incidents)
Breakdown by region (Home Office PDF)

46

English Policing

"When Robert Peel formed the Metropolitan Police there was a very strong fear of the military - the masses feared the new force would be oppressive."
A force that did not routinely carry firearms - and wore blue rather than red, which was associated with the infantry - was part of this effort to distinguish the early "Peelers" from the Army, Waddington says.
Policing by respect and consent

47

The Five “Gun-less” Police Countries

The UK (exception: Northern Ireland)
Republic of Ireland
Norway
Iceland
New Zealand

48

The Five “Gun-less” Police Countries

No simple proportionality from threat to gun carrying
Events were tragic, but they happen in other countries with guns also
Don't feel anymore protected with gun by their side

49

Sammy Yatim

Uncomfortable with position of having to shoot
Tasers and batons
Or specialized officers with guns
50/50 split on debate

50

Sammy Yatim

Idea of how tradition persists
Notion of police force concerned public who fear military
Enforcement by consent - for us

51

Sammy Yatim

Strong reaction led to compromise
Values and ideas on policing may be different, but it's tradition persists

52

Models of Policing

1. Civil Police Model- Police and military are completely separate in terms of goals, structure and organisation. The police deal with crime and keep the peace, while the military protects the country from external aggression (Canada, US, UK).

53

Models of Policing

2. State Police Model- The influence of the state is stronger and the police and military are separated to a lesser extent. Military can get involved in public order issues (France, Germany)

54

Models of Policing

3. Quasi-Military Police Model- The State has seized a great deal of power over the police . The police serves to protect the state and the police and military are largely interchangeable (Eastern European countries, Soviet model)

55

Models of Policing

1, Police there to protect us from inside
2. still have a separation, but there's more of an integration

56

Models of Policing

-

57

North Korean

Evidence from people who escape
Denied allegations by North Korea
Lots of social control
After WWII - South Korea taken over by US, Soviet taken over by Soviet

58

North Korean

North Korea - taught that the arms race is not over against US
Largest military and extremely large police force

59

Ministry of People’s Security

policing; operating prisons; protecting important persons; monitoring the public distribution system, traffic control, monitoring citizens' political attitudes; investigations; and controlling individual travel

60

Ministry of People’s Security

Enormous reach and responsibility in terms of social control
Lots of functions under one ministry
Traffic girls
Not a lot of traffic lights - electricity power outages happen often
Direct traffic

61

State Security Department

Bowibu- Secret police. Charged with searching out ‘anti-state criminals’.
State Security Dept. called the Bowibu or “secret police”

62

State Security Department

Broad and flexible defiiniton of crime against state
Anti-State Criminals- Very broad and general category including anti-government and dissident activities, economic crimes, and slander of political leadership.

63

State Security Department, 2

Officers do NOT wear uniforms

Offices found in nearly EVERY neighbourhood in the country

64

Poverty

Money diverted to MILITARY, POLICING, NUCLEAR WEAPONS
Starvation: social fact in 1990s and continues to happen
Severe shortage of food

65

Poverty

Distribution of food can be a form of policing
Resources are not devoted to food, more into nuclear weapons
A tool for maintaining social control

66

Gift Politics

Finance terrorist activity, money laundering
Money received in these endeavours goes toward purchasing lavish gifts for close party supporters

67

Gift Politics

Finance underground illegal activity and the money is used to give gifts to loyal supporters to earn their loyalty and support
When using this form, the gifts need to keep getting bigger to keep his power
People said this regime would fall and then it didn't
This change in power maintained this power
In order to gain support from the masses, you can give food as a gift

68

Gift Politics

-

69

Gift Politics

-

70

Gift Politics

-

71

One In Five Policy

One in five households work for State Security Department office
Responsible for investigating and detecting “crimes” and reporting them to the police
Some are paid, some volunteer
Often chosen at random….

72

One In Five Policy

So….you don’t know who the ONE IN FIVE are….it might be a family member
Might be a friend, aquaintance, etc.
Random - chosen to become 1
Crime can be expressing thoughts, beliefs

73

Travel Restrictions

Travel Permits- One needs a specialised permit in order to travel outside their native city and/or province
The capital city, Pyongyang, and other areas are closed off to the vast majority of North Koreans

74

Travel Restrictions

Only state phones are legal to be owned and they can and are wiretapped
Most are not allowed to own a phone

75

Travel Restrictions

Lengthy bureaucratic procedure to go through
Illegal to travel out of country - capital punishment
Difficult to get permits - long bureaucratic process
Vast majority not allowed to go capital - reserved for elite

76

Travel Restrictions, Continued

Home Inspections- Routine; unannounced.
Overnight inspections routinely occur between 12am and 3am

77

Travel Restrictions, Continued

Radio Checks-
must be a permitted radio, and the radio must be on on a very LOW HUM at all times by law
Maintain control over illegal visitors

78

Travel Restrictions, Continued

Bed Checks- Beds are inspected in order to prevent ‘adultery’ and ‘illegal visitors’

79

Chonghwa

Mandatory Weekly ‘Self-Criticism’ neighbourhood meetings
Latest edicts of the party are shared
Confessions of shortcomings are expected
Criticism of neighbours is expected

80

Chonghwa

Everyone is watching each other a) they can receive “gifts” for reporting
Its mandatory to be able to mention things at these meetings; or else you seem suspicious and you fear for yourself

81

Chonghwa

Latest policies are told
Self criticism
Taking a pass is not an option
Compelled to watch each other
Don't know how wide range this practice is

82

Mass Surveillance

Microphones placed in public spaces
Computers subject to random checks
Kwangmyong- National intranet available to very few (the super-elite)
100, 000 CCTVs across the country

83

Mass Surveillance

Ri Yong Ho – former chief of the general staff of the Korean Worker’s Party from 2009-2012
Removed from the post

84

Mass Surveillance

Possibly dead
Slightly oppositional to Kim Jong Un so he was fired
His line was wire tapped

85

Border Security

Paramilitary force of the Ministry of People’s Security
Primarily concerned with monitoring the border and with internal security

86

Border Security

Unlike everywhere else, North Korean border security responsible for the travel and activity of those trying to leave country as well as those trying to enter it

87

Border Security

Large military fortifies the fort
China's policy is to return defectors to North Korea
North Koreans live outside the country to find defectors

88

Sanction

Capital punishment - public execution
Prison camps - forced labour
Torture

89

Sanction

13 y/o girl
12 in japan or 100s in south korea that were kidnapped to work in North Korea