Social Causation Flashcards

1
Q

Positive of social control - SOCIAL

A

→ Social Impact Theory: uniform brings a higher status: → Makes an individual more trusting.
→ Agency Theory: good for the control in institutions and widen society (for example, crowd control + teams/corporations).

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2
Q

Misuse of social control - SOCIAL

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→ Realistic conflict theory: dictators may ostracize groups of people. e.g. Hitler framing jews. → Creating prejudice views to try and influence peoples opinions.
→ Agency theory: once we are able to understand how people can obey. e.g. uniform. This can be manipulated to exploit individuals. For example, uniforms e.g. police officers are trusted individuals however this can be abused. e.g. Sarah Everard trusted a police officer called Wayne Cousins when he offered a lift home. He then went on to rape and murder her. He abused his power as a police officer to kill Sarah Everard.

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3
Q

Studies to support positive control - SOCIAL

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→ Sherif → participants controlled and placed into two groups by the researchers, then three stages took place (non competitive activities in week one, introduced in week 2 with tournaments and prizes leading to competition and hostility. → Prizes given out increased competition and prejudice → findings can be used in a positive way to change society and reduce prejudice as it shows hostility can be reduced when two groups work together to achieve common goals.

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4
Q

Studies to support negative control - SOCIAL

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→ Milgram → Possibly coercive power. Ppts believed they become the teacher by chance, so if they resulted to continue they would just swap roles as they didn’t want to be shocked.

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5
Q

Positive of social control - COGNITIVE

A

→ Schemas: By understanding schemas and EWT we can understand how these can be manipulated to control the way criminals answer questions when being interrogated. → As EWT is un reliable because o schemas and memory it is not used as the sole evidence in court. → This has be used as a form of social control as it dictates who can testify and under what conditions they can give an accurate testimony.

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6
Q

Misuse of social control - COGNITIVE

A
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7
Q

Studies to support positive control - COGNITIVE

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→ Baddeley → findings STM - encodes acoustically and LTM - semantically it can change someones behaviour to specifically remember information. → Students can learn the best ways to revise and recall information meaning which means it will likely be encoded into LTM. → Beneficial for society as it helps students perform better in exams

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8
Q

Studies to support negative control - COGNITIVE

A

→ Baddeley → Issues in validity as the task of recalling words and the word order was unnatural and not a mundane task. → His study isn’t seen as valid as we cannot be sure the results are applicable to real life.

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9
Q

Positive of social control - BIOLOGICAL

A
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9
Q

Misuse of social control - BIOLOGICAL

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→ Hormone treatments: Physical aggression which can prevent social aggression if intervened. → Drug Treatments: 2nd generation anti-psychotics to help treat different mental disorders. →Testosterone: Testosterone is a male sex hormone responsible for the development of the primary sex organ. The theory social control: suggests males are more likely to partake in aggressive behaviours therefore controlling societies views on how males behave.

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10
Q

Studies to support positive control - BIOLOGICAL

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→ Raine - provides a bias to spot future criminals and prescribe treatments for violent offenders helping criminals with their claim of NGRI. → Possible to implement treatments (drugs to control/reduce brain activity) and control aggressive behaviour. → Helping keep society safe by reducing crime rates by screening people and changing their behaviour for the better.

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11
Q

Studies to support negative control - BIOLOGICAL

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→ Raine → unethical to screen brains to identify potential criminals and then force them to take medication. → They would be labelled for the rest of their lives leading to self-fulfilling prophecy affecting their stigma and self image. → Highly unethical and a form of negative control → Correlation findings so cause and effect not applicable.

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12
Q

Positive of social control - LEARNING

A
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13
Q

Misuse of social control - LEARNING

A
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14
Q

Studies to support positive control - LEARNING

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→ Watson and Rayner: It has been used in a positive way as the effects of being able to control people can be applied to treatments to remove a phobia which benefits society (Capafons - flying). → A second way allows people to change their negative views of a phobia into positive views which further betters their quality of life and experience.

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15
Q

Studies to support negative control - LEARNING

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→ Watson and Rayner → Little Albert manipulated as Watson conditioned a fear response by associating a loud noise that Albert found frightening with a range of objects. → Albert couldn’t object/stop the study - he was vulnerable as he was only a baby. → Negative social controls as manipulating his behaviour.

16
Q

Positive of social control - CLINICAL

A
16
Q

Misuse of social control - CLINICAL

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→ Assertive community treatment: means people can live an more independent life → e.g. those who have schizophrenia. It helps those people become functioning members in society. It is beneficial for both the individuals as well as society.

17
Q

Studies to support positive control - CLINICAL

A

→ Rosehan: By labelling someone unwell, society are given power over them and can make comparisons and act as if they are better then them. → Labeling can be used as a form of social control leading to self-fulfilling prophecies → Bringing the issue to attention leads to increased awareness of it and changes, therefore can be implemented to minimise negative impacts of labelling someone as ‘insane’ in society.

18
Q

Studies to support negative control - CLINICAL

A

→ Rosehan: ppts were socially controlled as
they couldn’t leave the hospital, they were forced to behave
In certain way which seemed acceptable by the institution. → they had to abide by results of the higher power in hospitals. → they had approved to be released

19
Q

Positive of social control - CRIMINAL

A

→ Cognitive behaviour therapy: no difference in power between patient and practioner. → Cognitive interviews: are a more controlled way of producing police interviews but this means they can provide more accurate sentences and they know they can gain testimonies from children, as well as others.