4 principles from ppt
1. Society and culture influence individual behaviour. We have a basic need to "belong". The relationship btw the individual and the group is bidirectional:as the individual is affected by being part of a group, the individual can also affect behaviour in the group.
2. We are social animals. We have a social self which reflects group membership. People do not only have individual identity, but also a collective or social one. Social identities are very important to the definition of who we are, and many behaviours are determined by membership of groups such as family, community, club or nationality.
3. We construct or own concepts of the individual and social self. Humans create and shape culture and they are influenced by their culture. Our communities instil in us values which have been passed on from generation to generation.
4. Our conceptions are resistant to change. People's view of the world are resistant to change. A world is understood; how it is supposed to work, why it works that way, what values are essential in the world community.
Principles from the book
- Human beings are social animals and we have a basic need to 'belong'. The relationship between the individual and the group is bidirectional: as the individual is affected by being part of a group, the individual can also effect behaviour in the group
- Social level of analysis is that culture influences behaviour. Culture can be defined as the norms and values that define a society
o Multicultral society, the effect of culture on a person's behaviour ==> may help us understand cultural differences
o Humans creat and shape culture and they influenced by their culture
- Humans are social animals, they have a socail self. Peope do not only have an individual identity, but also a collective or social one.
o Social identities are very important to the definition of who we are, and many behaviours are determined by membership of groups-family, club,nationality etc.
- Peple's view of the world are resistat to change. A world view can be defined as the way the world is understood: how it is suppouse to work, why it works the way it does, and what vaules are essential in the world community.
o Culture helps to shape our world view and our communities
o Multicultral society, the effect of culture on a person's behaviour ==> may help us understand cultural differences
o Humans creat and shape culture and they influenced by their culture
o Social identities are very important to the definition of who we are, and many behaviours are determined by membership of groups-family, club,nationality etc.
o Culture helps to shape our world view and our communities
Aim: to demonstrate the situational rather than the dispositional causes of negative behaviour and thought patterns found in prison settings by conducting a prison stimulation with "normal" subjects playing the roles of prisoners and guards Theory: situational and dispositional factors
•Qualitative: (they were taped with both video and audio of behaviour and dialogue. Also self-reports and interviews)
IV: the situation, and the random assignment of roles (gaurds or prisoners) DV: the negative (individual and group) behaviour of the subjects. Both prisoners and guards.
Participants: 22 males, selected from personality assesments that tested for maturity, (mental) stability, and social behaviour. randomly assigned to the roles of prisoner or guard
Procedure: $15/day Prisoner- informed consents, arrested by surprise- driven to prison where they were stripped naked, "deloused" and given smocks- referred to as their number-obeyed gaurds and followed a schedual of work,rest,meals,toilet - kept in 2x3 m. prison cells.
Guards- received a uniform, batons, reflective sunglasses, were told to keep reasonable degree of order but without using physical violence-worked in 8h. shifts.
Results: The experiment was cancelled after 6 days due to the pathological (abnormal). All adapted behaviour equal to the role they played, and felt the prison was real. The interviews showed that the prisoners didn't just act, but actually referred to themselves as prisoners and was affected by the guards attitude, they even reffered to themselves as their number and were asked to get a lawyer when introduced to a priest. Zimbardo asked 5 of the prisoners if they would forfeit the money they had earned if they could be paroled, 3 said yes, yet when they were told to return to the cell while it was considered they did so rather than just walk out.
Prisoners behaviour: demonstrated "pathological prisoner's syndorme" -- disbelief, followed by rebelion, followed by negative emotions, such as extreme emotional depression (crying, anxiety, rage). They gave signs of Learned Helplessness: became obidant, passive, and dependant (on gaurd's instuction). This could be because of a loss of personal identity.
Guards behaviour: demonstrated "pathology of power"-- their aggression increased throughout he whole study. They enjoyed/abused the power and dehuminized prisoners. Not all gaurds demonstraded aggression, but none apposed it.
Ross and Lee (1977)
Aim: to investigate whether knowledge of allocated social roles in a quiz show would affect participants' judgements of people's expertise.
Participants: 18 pairs of universal students from stanford, randomly assigned to questionnaire or contestant. +24 observers
Experimental method: laboratory experiment, operationalised IV DV
IV- people who were randomly allocated to be either contestant or questioner
DV-the "general knowledge" rating given to the contestant and the questioner by the 24 observers
Procedure: Questioner asked to compose 10 questions based on their own knowledge, the contestants asked to answer them. Questioner told to ask each question then wait 30 sec for a response- if they didn't answer the questioner said the right answer.
Result: Contestants and observers rated the general knowledge of the questioner as superior- clear demonstration of FAE (observers overestimate personal characteristics and underestimate the situation, and they attributed the questioners' ability to answer the questions to dispositional factors. Questioners did not rate themselves as being superior over the contestants.
Holloway et al (1986)
Aim: to investigate whether there are differences in the ways that parents and children in Japan and US explains levels of performance in maths.
Theory: SSB Design: experimental method, laboratory experiment
Design: Interview study
Participants: 63 Japanese mothers and their children from 5th grade 47 American mothers and their children in 6th grade.
Procedure: all participants were interviewed. When the mothers were interviews they were asked to assesses their child's performance in math. If claiming that their child did well or poorly in math, 5 different cards were received and they were asked to explain why. The five cards said: My child lacks/has ability in math because...
-my child has a natural ability for math
-my child tries hard in math
-my child has good training in school
-my child has good training at home
-my child has been lucky in math.
Asked to distribute 10 plastic chips upon the card to show their relevance, the child was asked to do the same.
Results: Americans and Japanese mothers put more emphasis on effort while children more strongly emphasised ability. Actors (children) attribute success to internal causes and failure to external causes. By comparing the different cultures, one can see that Japan's performance was attributed to effort, and American attributed to (lack of) ability or an effect of training in school, this indicates that there is less SSB in Japan than America.
Dietz-Uhler & Murrell (1999)
Aim: to examine the reactions of sport fans over the course of an entire season.
Theory: SIT + social animals principle
Participants: 74 (34 male, 40 female) psychology students, volunteers (given course credit), completed questionnaire for all the football games.
Procedure: completed the collective self-esteem scale before the first game (good reliability)16 items that measured the extent of the participants' identification with their university- 7 point scale, higher score=greater identification.
Every Monday after a game, Participants completed a questionnaire about their reaction to the game. The participants were debriefed at the end of the semester, and had the possibility to learn about the results.
To determine the identification level. The median of the collective self-esteem score were used, at or below median placed in "WEAK" identity uni group. Above median placed in "STRONG" uni identity group.
Participants asked to rate the team for: goodness, successfulness, intelligence and skillfullnes- 7 point scale. It also measured 3 contextual factors of the game:
-outcome: whether the team own or lost
-expected outcome: pre-game analysis in the student newspaper. Unexpected win or expected win.
-media attention: article description of the game following the game (2 coders read each article to determine if it was positive or negative view of the game)
Results: fans that identified strongly with their uni, evaluated the team more favourably over the course of the season, while those who identified weakly with their uni evaluated the team about the same over the course of the season.
Fans who identified more strongly with their uni evaluated the team more favourably when they won, when the win was expected and when media attention was positive. Those who identified weakly evaluated team the similarly regardless of the contextual factors
Steele & Aronsson (1995)
Aim: to investigate if statistically significant differences in academic performance between African American and Anglo Americans might have a genetic component, or is situational.
How the stereotype threat influences academic proformances in African American
Participants: African American and white college students
Subjects too a 30 min verbal portion of the hardest items from the Graduate Record Exam
1. The test was presented as a measure of intellectual ability and preparation. "Genuine test of your verbal abilities" (stereotype threat or diagnostic condition)
2. Stereotyped threat removed by telling test takers that the test was simply being used to examine the psychology of verbal problem-solving "to better understand the psychological factors involved In solving verbal problems" (non-evaluated or non-diagnostic condition)
Condition 1: Afro-American students scored significantly lower than whites
Condition 2: Afro-American students answerd twice as many problems.
African American are negativly stereotyped as being intellectually inferior. The extra burden or stereotype threat interferes with the ability to perform well in these situations. Stereotype threat comes from the environment and does not come from innate deficit.
To feel stereotype threat one needs NOTrelate to race, ethnicity, gender.
Finally Steele States that stereotype threat generates "spotlight anxiety" causes emotional distress and worry that undermines performance. Students worry that their preformance will leade to society judgeding their group, so focus and full attention is disturbed.
Stereotype threat can work as long as the individual believes in the stereotype
Aim:to investigate if boys placed in random groups based on arbitrary task (minimal group) would create in-group favouritism and inter group discrimination.
Theory: SIT Participants: 64 schoolboys (14-15) from a state school in UK
Procedure: participants all knew each other before the experiment. The boys were shown clusters of dots, with a of varying numbers of dots in each cluster.
Boys ask to estimate the amount of dots, and experimenters then pretended to check the results, but really randomly put the boys into either an "over estimators" or "under estimators" group.
Boys were then asked to allocated small amounts of money to the other participants. The only thing they knew about the boy was if they belonged to the same or different category. The boys were forced to give more to one group, couldn't give an equal amount.
In a second experiment, the boys were randomly allocated to groups based on their supposed artistic preferences for 2 painters. They then had to award money to the other boys like before. But now they had the option of maximizing or minimizing the difference given to both groups. ( e.g. they could give everyone the same, or could give their group almost everything and give the other group almost nothing)
1st experiment: the Majority of the boys gave money to members of their own groups.
2nd experiment: In the second experiment the boys tried to maximise differences btw the two groups, by creating a large difference in money between groups instead of giving a greater amount to everyone.
The results showed that the boys adopted a strategy for in-group favouritism and out-group discrimination even though the groups were meaningless. Supports theory.
Bandura et al (1961)
Aim: to investigate whether children can acquire aggressive behaviour by observing models and whether the model's gender is important
Participants: 36 boys and 36 girls, 3-6
Design: Experimental, controled
Procedure: Each child was rated for aggressive behaviour before the study, and the groups were matched. Children saw adult models playing. Different groups saw -aggressive or non-aggressive behaviour by model, or no model (control)- and they say either same or different sex models
1. Aggressive male. 1.5- aggressive female.
2. Not aggressive male. 2.5- non aggressive female
3. No model at all (control)
Non aggressive models played with tinker toy for 10 min. Aggressive model played with tinker toy for 1 min, and then displayed verbal and physical aggression for 9 min toward a bobo doll.
Children were then made frustrated by being shown attractive toys which they were told the could initially play with but were them told it were for other children. This insured that they all had a similar level of aggression (reliability). After this the children were moved to another room with toys, including a bobo doll and observed for 20 min through a one-way-mirror.
Results: children, especially boys who saw aggressive models showed more violent behaviour towards the bobo doll than those who had observed non-aggressive behaviour. Girls reproduced slightly more verbal aggression and boys more physical. Boys were also more likely to imitate same sex models; the same patterns existed for girls, although those who saw the non-aggressive model were even less aggressive than those who saw no model at all. Thus observation and imitation can account for the acquisition of specific aggressive behaviours. Children are more likely to learn from gender specific models.
Cialdini et al. (1975)
Aim: to test whether the door-in-the-face technique is effective because of the reciprocity norm or behaviour of the contrast effect
Contrast Effect: when a small request is seen as even smaller when it's presented alongside a large request, and is therefore more likely to be accepted
Design: Feild experiment
Participants: 72 people walking alone through the university campus, both men and women
Procedure: participants were approached by an experimenter, and they were randomly allocated into three different conditions.
1. Rejected moderation condition- the walkers were asked to volunteer for unpaid woke 2h/week for 2 years (large request, all rejected). When all the participants rejected, they were then asked to join a trip to a zoo as chaperones for a trip to a zoo as chaperones for a group of youth for 2 hours (small request).
2. Exposure control condition- they were informed about the two requests and asked if they could accept any if the two. (No one accepted the big request)
3. Control condition- only asked for the smaller request (zoo for 2h)
Results: the number of complying participants was highest in the rejection-moderation condition. The researchers therefore concluded that the reciprocity nor is the reason why the DITF technique works.
Reciprocity norms=treat like you want to be treated, and compromises, since the experimenter compromised and gave a more reasonable request- felt guilt and accepted it.
However since compliance was higher in the exposure control condition than in the control condition the contrast effect could be a contributing factor.
Aim: to investigate whether the FITD technique is effective also when contact is taken over the internet.
Theory: Foot in the door.
Participants: 50 computer science students from France, sample was created at the moment and included students who were connected.
Design: feild experiment
Procedure: experimenter created 2 email addressed, one with female and one with a male name. The domain address indicated that they studied at the university. The following request was sent as an email to half of the participants in the experimental condition:"I have to send my CV to a company in a word rtf format. I don't know how it works, can you help me?" (Small request since it could be answered in less than a minute)
Large request sent 15 min later. Asking them to participate in their statistical analysis of diat habits of students by filling out a questionnaire: "I don't want to take advantage but could you help me once more. We'll, with 3 of my study friends we have perform a statistical analysis of the diet habits of students. For this we will have to analyse a questionnaire and we will be evaluated on the analysis if the collected data. Would you accept answering it? Just in case, I attached an HTML form that was given to us and that you will have to send back by clicking on the send button at the end of the form. Thanks in advance and have nice day"
- 40 questions and pre-test had shown that it would take 15-20 min to answer.
The remaining 25 participants in the control condition received a very similar e-mail, however, without he words: "once more." They recived the email right away without first being asked the small request.
Results: when analysing the result the researcher found a significant difference in compliance btw the experimental condition and the control condition.
In the former 19 out of 25 i.e. 76% complied with the larger request and returned a completed questionnaire. In control condition only 11 out of 25 I.e. 44% returned the form.
Aim: to study conformity when all participants are naive
To see how disposition (personality) affects conformity
Participants: 90 air force officers, 50 in the experimental group, 40 in the control group.
Procedure: 5 participants were tested simultaneously, seated side by side but could not see each other. They had electronic desplay boards which showed them the test items, as well as switches that supposedly let the other subjects know what they had answerd, and signal lamps that indicated the other's responses.
They were really presented with fake responces, and led to believe they were the last to answer.
The items included different kinds of issues; perceptual, factual, matters of opinion, logical, personal preferneces. They were also tested for personality traits, to see how they were related to different degrees of conformity.
Results: Conformity varied from Asch's results (30% conformed). When they compared areas of a circle to a star, 46% conformed to the false alternative, and during a simple logical task 30% conformed.
The results also showed that conformity varies between individuals- personality traits for independency e.g. intellecutal effective, ego-strenght, leadarship ability, mature social relations, abcense of infiriority feelings, rigid and ecessive self- control, and authoritarian attidudes. Conformists had opposit traits
The study was replicated twice :
Once with college students, who showed the same degree of conformity, and that females were more conformist. And once with adult women in their 40s, who had significantly lower conformity than the other two studies,
Define what stereotype is
A stereotype is a generalisation about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members. Once formed, stereotypes are resistant to change on the basis of new information.
There are 3 components to an attitude
1, The affective component--prejudices: An initial emotional judgment or opinion (could be positive or negative) on a person soley because the belong to a certain group (Texans, Russians, Teenagers).
2, the cognitive component--stereotypes
Stereotypeing is a technique used to catigorize and simplify the world without having an emotion involved.
3, the behavioural componant--discrimination: when we act out our prejudices or stereotypes and act unjustly, harmfully, or negitavly towards people others just because they belong to.
Formation of stereotypes--
•Evolutionary suggestion: Evolutionarily benifficial, and easier to survive if we favor those similar to us, and in our family/tribes/groups
•Culture: parents/community/media may present people of certain groups, or people who are different from us, negatively
•Social catigorization: us vs. them-Tajfel
•Stereotype Threat (Steel 1995): The apprehension people of a minority group feel that their behaviour is confirming a certain stereotype about the group they belong to. The stereotype threat only works if the person believes in the stereotype.
Aim: to see if it is possible to manipulate a person's behaviour by applying group pressure- will the participant conform to the wrong answer given by the confederates?
Design: Laboraty experiment. (participants told it was a perceptual judgement test- deception)
IV- the only real participant
DV- the number of answers
Tested in groups of 7-9
Procedure: Participant seated in a row with 6 confederates, on either the 6th or 7th place. The participant were showed a line on a card, and were then asked to select a line on a second card that matched the length of the line on the first card.
18 trials. The confederates answered correctly sometimes and sometimes not.
Results: 75% of the participants in the experiment conformed at least once with the group and picked the wrong length of the line.
On average across trials, 32% of the participants conformed with incorrect responses in half or more of the trials.
24% of the participants did not conform to any of the incorrect responses given by the confederates.
When interviewd after, the subjects said that they didn't want to appear different/be judged/be social outcast/be seen as a fool, etc. Some felt stressed, as they knew the answer was wrong but went along anyway.
Asch's research supports Normative conformity (you want to be liked or respected by other memebers of the group)
Fritz Heider (1958) Theory
People observe, their own, or other’s behaviour and try to attribute a reason for the behaviour; situational or dispositional. If we believe behaviour is dispositional - it's because of the person’s nature and not their environment. We assume they are predisposed to such behaviour.
If a person’s behaviour is affected by situational factors- affected by factors that are outside the person, e.g. location, environment and the situation.This means that the person’s behaviour is affected through the their surrounding, not their nature.
Ross (1977) Theory
Fundamental Attribution Error
Tendancy for the observer to overestimate the influence of dispositional factors and underestimate the influence of situational factors even when there is equal evidence for both.
Reasons for this: the way we focus attention- we focus on the person in the situation and not the situation itself, esp. if we have little knowledge about the person.
This is becuse people are active, chaging, and moving, and the environment is static, uninteresting
Miller and Ross (1975) Theory
Self-serving Bias Theory
SSB - the tendency for people to blame their failures on situational factors and their successes on dispositional factors.
It occurs because we wish to maintain and protect our self-esteem and make good impressions in the eyes of others.
People expect to succeed based on their own ablities, so we attribute our unexpected failurs to the situation.
Tajfel & Turner (1979) Theory
Social Identity Theory
Social Identity: Is apart of our self-concept based on the knowledge that we belong to certain social groups, along with the value/significance we attach to that memebership.
SIT happens in 3 cognitive steps:
1, social catigorization: we put people into groups (democrats, nerds, gender)
2, social identification: we adopt the identity of the group we think we belong to
3, social comparison: we distinguish between ingroup and outgroups as to make comparisons and establish, maintain, and defend positive ingroup distinctiveness
This can result in a positive social identity=high self-esteem, unless the comparison between groups results in a negative outcome for the group= negitive social identity=poor self-esteem
Out group discrimination: where all members of an outgroup are seen as having similar charactaristics and negatve
Ingroup favoratism: seeing your own group members as individuals and positive
Wei et al. (2001)
Aim: To investigare the extent to which the dimension ind/coll influenced conflict resolution communication styles. (conflict is a culturally defined event)
Participants: 600 managers working in companies in Singapore (randomly selected for the survey)
Procedure: Participants divided into 4 groups:
- Chinese Singaporean working in Mulit-international companies
- Chinese Singaporeans working in local companies.
Questionnaires and correlations analysis were used to find possible relationships btw scores on cultural dimension and conflict resolution styles.
• competing (ambitious/aggressive)
- Generally, the higher the score in the individualist dimension the more likely the manager was to adopt a competing conflict resolution style
- American managers (individualist dimension) were generally more likely to adopt a competing conflict resolution style and less likely to adopt an avoiding conflict resolution than Asian managers (collectivism)
- Asians managers did not always adopt an avoidance conflict resolution style as predicted by the coll/ind dimension.
- In som cases, American mangaers who had been in Singapore for several years had adopted a more Asian conflict resolution style such as accommodating and compromising.
- Australian did not show a similarity to American conflict resolution as expected by the coll/ind dimensions, instead they prefer collaborating and compromising resolution styles.
Conclusion: coll/ind dimension in relation to conflict resolution styles was only somewhat confirmed. Researchers concluded that conflict resolution is complicated and can't be reduced to cultural dimensions alone.
Merrit & Helmreich (1996)
Aim: to test if pilots from western backgrounds are low to moderate in power distance level, meaning that they are more likely to directly communicate and be assertive with supervisors than pilots from Eastern backgrounds where power distance is high.
Participants: 13 000 pilots from 25 airlines in 16 countries
Method: Flight managment attitudes questionnaire (FMAQ). Focus on difference btw attitudes towards flight operations and afety issues.
Results: 85-100% agreed that good communivation is importants.
Highest PD- Brazil, Korea, Mexico
Lowest PD- Australia, South Africa, New Zeland
compelling cultural differences were found e.g. 15% of respondents in one country ranging to 93% in another believed that only when there is an issue with safety should crew members question their captain's decisions or actions. Also 36% in one country compared with 98% in another say that they would voice their concerns if they believed that there was an issue during the flight.
Finally, thses differnces btw countries show that national culture and customs to heavily influence communication in flight operations. Power distance affects the way pilots communivate and aviation. Pilots with high PD score were enthustiastic about automation because it is perceived as authoriative.
Etic & Emic
Etic: tries to find universal behaviours. In other words, we take our own norms and values and try to apply this to other cultures (outside view), e.g. symptoms of depression or conformity. Usually a western view which lies on ethnocentrism or eurocentrism- the norm. Resarchers rely on theories and techniques in their own culture (imposed etic). They cannot shake off the influence of their own culture.
Emic: Tries to look at behaviours that are culturally specific. In other words, Emic is studied within and not from the outside, the researhcer get to know the norms and values of the culture (inside view). Assumed that the meaning of behaviour can only be defined from within the culture (cultural relativism).
Etic example: Asch-conformity
Emic example: Wei-Conformity (coll/ind)
Bandura (1977) Theory
Social learning theory
SLT states that humans do observational learning, where they learn behaviour through watching a model, and that these behaviours occure spontaniously in the observer without reinforcment.
There's a 4-step modeling process.
1, Attention - must observ model, and pay attention
2, Retention – must retain the model's behaviour
3, Reproduction – must be able to physically replicate the model's behaviour
4, Motivation – must have a reason to perform the behaviour. A behaviour may be learned at some time, but preformed at a later point in time. Whether someone will be motivated depends on several factors
•if the model behaves consistantly across different situations
•If someone identifies with the model •whether the model is rewarded or punished •if they like the model or not
•depends of the charactaristics of the observer- self-esteem, gender, age, etc.
•depends of the charactaristics of the model- power, gender, status, likability, etc.
•Self-efficacy (if people believe they can preform the behaviour go get the desired outcome)
It's the most common form of social influence. Where people are socially influence to change their behaviour as a result of a direct request. Where direct pressure (though not always apperent) makes one go along with instructions or suggestions. To change behaviour without changing opinion, To change behaviour because of gaining a reward or avoiding punishment.
Factors that influence compliance:
•commitment: We want to stand by our agreements/ commitments/ obligations. We want to keep promises and be consistant with previous behaviour.
•reciprocity principal: It's a social norm to treat others the way they treat us, and repay favors. If someone has given a gift, or made a compromise, it should be acknowledged with the same behaviour. Not doing so can result in feelings of guilt.
Johnsson et.al (1964)
Aim: investigate how teachers would attribute the successes of failures of their pupils- dispositional or situational.
Design: Laboratory experiment
Participants: Psychology students
Participants taught two children (pupils A and B) how to multiply numbers by 10 and by 20.
They taught the kids through a one-way intercom and it was done two times
First time they taught the children how to multiply by 10
Second time they taught the children how to multiply by 20
After each phase, the participant got to see the process of the children that they just taught through one-way technique. The children’s worksheets were showed, but they were altered in such a way that pupil A failed both tasks and pupil B failed the first task but improved and succeeded in the second task.
They results that was showed for the “teacher” was fake that was made by the experimenter
When asked to explain the results “teachers” attributed the pupil A’s failure was because of lack of ability, and that pupil B’s improvement to their teaching style.
Conformity theory and the different types
- The tendency to change our thoughts, feelings, perceptions or behaviours in ways that are consistent with group norms.
- A change in behaviout due to real or imagined influence of other people.
- Is generally an accepted way of thinking, feeling, or behaving that most people in a group agree on and endorse as right and proper (Smith & Mackie 2007
- Can change as time goes on and socety as a whole progress.
- If one does not follow social norms they are considered abnormal
Factors that influence conformity:
- Group size (conformity decreases after 8 people are in a group)
- Unanimity (support from another decreases conformity)
- Minority influnce
- Informational social influence
- Normative social influence
Types of conformity
Informational social influence (Deutsch & Gerad 1955)
o Based on the need that everyone has for certainty
o Refer to other to know how to react, believe in the superior knowledge or judment of others
-> This leads people to change their private opinion and behaviour
Normative social infulence (Deutsch & Gerard 1955)
o Based upon the need for social acceptance and approval
o Want to be liked or respected by other members of the group
-> May lead individuals into compliance - publicly agreeing with the group, but privately maintainnig their own opinions
Social Identity Theory (1979)
The Social Identity Theory introduced the concept of a social identity as a way in which to explain intergroup behaviour.
The theory is defined as the part of one’s self-concept based on the knowledge of membership in social group(s) in combination with the value and emotional significance attached to that membership. The individual strives to improve their self-image by trying to enhance their self-esteem, based on either personal identity or various social identities.
Individuals strive to maintain a positive self-concept as well as a positive social identity. People make comparisons between ingroup and outgroup on valued dimensions to establish, maintain, and dened positive ingroup distinctiveness (social comparision)
When a social comparison results in a positive outcome for the ingroup; the need fot a positive social identity is satisfied but the opposite may also happen.
Intergroup dicrimination can be one way to uphold a positive social identitiy for the ingroup (e.g. when women earn less than men for the same work)
We identify ourselves as part of a group because one of the principals it that we have a need to “belong” somewhere.
We classify people as either within or outside that group and we have ingroup and an out- group; there are “us or them” - thinking
Tajfel argues that people who belong to a group – or randomly assigned to a group – they u automatically think of that group as their ingroup (us) and all other groups as outgroup (them).
Ingroup favouritism and outgroup discrimination
Three cognitive steps
Social categorisation – When we categorise other people as members of social groups
Social identification – We tend to adopt the identity of the group we think we belong
Social comparison – Benefits of belonging to the ingroup versus the outgroup
We compare our group to another outgroup to maintain our self-esteem, which lead to competitive intergroup behaviour.
Competing for resources è one of them can be identities
Shiraev & Levy: A culter has attributes, (like beliefes, politics, morals, religion, values, stereotypes etc.) and behaviours (like gestures, norms, costums, pictures/objects that share a cultural meaning).
Triandis (1990): culture has 2 aspects,
subjective/deep culture: which are invisible, like beliefs, attitudes, norms, roles, values
objective /surface culture: which are visible charactaristics like, roads, bridges, music, art.
Kuschel (2004) The concept off culture is vauge and includes many variables, so one must be carful of generalizations.
culture can be...
•a group of nations (western culture)
The norms of an established group (e.g. culture) which is transmitted across generations, and where behaviour is regulated in accordance with the group's beliefs about accepted and unacceptable ways of thinking/feeling/behaving.
Cultural norms, unlike social norms, extend to cover wider social groups, like entire ethnicities.
Hofsted (1983), Theory
Hofsted developed 5 cultural dimensions, which are measureing sticks of beliefs, values, and attitudes within a culture. These are measured on a continuum.
Power distance: The way cultures deal with iniqualities. How much distance in power there is between members of oginizations or institutions in a country, and to what extent the members expect and accept this iniquality in power. •characteristics: kids expected to be obedient to parents, welth, power, and prestige is distributed unevenly, in the workplace the boss and subordinant consider eachother unequal and may have a large salary gap,
Differences between these are
•Self - dependant or indipendant on others
•Ties between people- strong or loose
•Family- loose or strong, do extended family provide support/protection?
•Goals- who to take into account when considering goals, the family or just yourself?
•Define other people - are people defined by what they have done, or by who their connections and family are.
•Individual or group- do what's best for the individual or the group?
Moscovici et al. (1969)
Aim: to see if the miniority of the group can change the groups behaviour.
Theory: conformity (research evaluation)
IV - if the confederates were consistent or not (where they were seated)
DV - if the participants complied to the minority of confederates (always named the colour green). They were shown 6 different slides in blue colour were shown six times for 15 sec. Then in 12 consistent groups; the confederates was seated as 1st and 2nd, 20 inconsistent groups they were seated 1st and 4th. And a control group with no confederates
Results: precentage of participants responding green; consistent group: 8.42%, Inconsistent group: 1.25%, control group: 0.25%
Aim: to investigate the effect of a radio program on listeners' attitudes and sexual practices.
Theory: Social learning theory
- IV- the immediate (all 5 years) versus delayed (final 2 years only) exposure to a radio soap opera series.
- DV- attitudes about risky sex and HIV/AIDS, self-efficacy for reducing risk of AIDS, sexual practises
Participants: one or more family members from roughly 2750 randomly chosen households in Tanzania.
- Soap opera feuatred three types of role models:
- Positive role modles were knowledgable about HIV/AIDS, minimized risky sex, and ultimately attained rewarding social outcomes.
- Transitional role models began by acting irresponsibly but eventually adopted safer sexual practices.
- Negative role models, such as a major character name Mkwaju, engaged in risky sex that led to punishmetn outcomes. Mkwaju was a promiscuous, married truck driver who had unprotected sex with many girlfriends and ignored warnings about HIV/AIDS.
- During the series his wife, fearing infection, left him.
- Later he contracted HIV and died of AIDS
- The program's content was designed to:
- make listeners realize that they were at risk for contracting HIV/AIDS.
- increase listeners' self-efficacy by showing them how to control the risk
- get the listeners to reduce their number of sexual partners and use condoms when having sex.
- the prime-time soap opera was broadcast twcie weekly to six geographic regions (e.g. the experimental regions) of Tanzania for 5 years.
- A seventh geographic region served as a control region for the first 3 years and received the radio program for only the final 2 years
- each year interviewers gathered info about participants' attitudes, sexual behaviour, and personal characterisitcs.
- over half of the participants living in the 6 experimetnal regions listened to the soap opera, a high figure given that many in Tanzania does not own Radios
- typical listener hear 108 of 204 episodes, about 80% said that the program helped them learn about preventing HIV/AIDS.
- compared to people not exposed to the programs, those who tuned in became more likely to believe that htey were at risk for contracting HIV/AIDS but could control this risk through sager sexual practices.
- Listeneres identified with the soap opera's positive models, spoke more ofthen wiith their partners about HIV/AIDS, reduced their number of sexual partners, and increased their use of condoms.
- these findings were replicated in the seventh geographic region after it was swtiched from control to experimental group.
Banerjee et al (2007)
- In his study ASH found that american college students conform to a high degree when its about FACTS .
- But we cannot generalize Ash´s findings to all kinds of people, neither can we generalize them to all kinds of matters. e.g we dont know if the same goes for personal opiniones.
Aim: to investigate whether childrens conformity differs between matters of FACT and matter of OPINION.
Participants: 88 children age 8-9 years. Mostly white, and attend school in an urban neighborhood.
- IV- the prior fake results
- DV- if the children conform or not
- Children were tested individually in their school.They were given A4 sheets. Two sheets had three reference lines and one Target line. One of the reference lines matches the target line.
- On one of the papers, two of the reference lines were clearly incorrect and did not match the target line, while the last reference line matched perfectly.
- While on the other paper the three reference lines were similar and hard to tell apart.
- the children were to tell which lines were of the same length. HOWEVER before that they had to give an response, they were shown the answers from 6 other children
- the answers from the 6 other children are not real and made up. All of the made up answer gave the incorrect answer every time.
- Then the children were shown another which presented three pictures of well-maintained houses.
- children were asked which house would be the best to live in. -- Before they were to give an answer they were shown the alleged answer from 6 other children (FAKE AND INCORRECT)
- The children were given the task in a random order for each child.
- The amount of conformity differed much from each task.
- 27% of the children conformed on the unambiguous task, which is the one where the lines was clearly different and it was easy to identify the matching lines.
- 63% conformed on the ambiguous task which is the one where the lines are similar, which makes it hard to find the correct matching lines.
- 30,7% of the children conformed on the house task (OPINION task)
- however have in mind that the ones that conformed on the opinion task might just have choosen the house the like the most. and it just happened to be that house.
Cultural dimensions on behaviour
can also be used on Cognitive
Aim: To investigate how and to what extent culture affects our memories and self-identification.
- Identities are closely linked to the memories
- Individualistic cultures – Identify ourselves by our achievements
- Collectivistic cultures – Identify ourselves by a large group
- Cultural socialisation influences our schemas
- Our schemas influence how we encode and reconstruct events
- Cultural might influence our memory and self-identity
- Education also affect our schemas
- Qualitative study using a one-to-one interview technique
- Last birthday, parents scolded them, special and fun, earliest memory
- Children from the age range of 3 years and 3months to 8years and 11months
- All of the children had a middle-class background
- 93 European American: only 29 children were from only child families
- 87 Chinese – only child families
- Age affected content; the amount of self-description, lengthier memories, more specific memories and also more often talked about emotions and mentioned more people.
- European American Children reported;
- more specific memories
- referred more to emotions
- more personal characteristics
- mention a higher number of others than Chinese children
- Chinese Children reported;
- described more social interactions
- the ratio ‘other’ to ‘self’ was higher
- self – description was often more neutral
- Native female interviewer – more secure for the children
- Middle class – more likely to be treated in the same way – less participants variability
- Children – more like to tell the more genuine answer
- Broad choose of participants
- Qualitative study – generates rich data, can go in to depth to see if it supports the study
- Parental consent
- Enhances prejudices –stereotyping
- Not generalized – only kids
Emic and etic
Can also be used on Abnormal
Aim: to explore the cultural dimensions of depression
- EMIC: Finding answers within the culture.
- ETIC: Universal.
- Patients and their families have their own ideas about the illness, opposed to the clinican view. emic (perceptions of the local community), Etic (perception of the proffesionals)
- Non western cultures more somatic symptoms
- DSM-IV depression?
- Cultural dimensions; the perspectives of a culture based on values and norms.
- Cultural norms are behavioural patterns of specific groups. Passed down through observational learning.
- 42 adult men and women with a history of depressive episodes
- 6 formal and informal health care providers
- 2 caregivers
- FGD- 8 participants at a time (as in Asch conformity, small groups better), approx 2 hours
- Exploratory, qualitative study, two villages:
- 65 km south, Dhaka
- In-depht interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs)
- audio-taped, transcribed, body notes, free-listings, observation notes.
- Carried out for 9 week from Nov 2006-Jan 2007
Data collection procedure:
- case vigenette with typical features of a depressive episode was read out to eahc participant to initiate conversation.
- Translated into Bangla and modified with local names and idioms. E.g. question:
- what do you think of Mr/Mrs X?
- What kind of problems does he/she have?
- Do you think this condition is physical, mental, both or just social?
- After hearing vignette participatns were urged to collectively prepare a free-listing of all local terms that mathced the condition described in hte vignette.
- participants identified that in one village there were 4 women and 1 man with a history of depressive episode, and in the other there were 4 men and 1 woman. all muslims
- Perception of depression in villages:
- Local terms for depression:
- Chinta rog- worry illness
- durbolata- Weakness, tension- anxiety
- Mathaye- tension in the head
- Local terms for depression:
- Manifistation of depression (more for abnormal):
- Physical descriptions were for example dizziness, sleeplessness, ache, pain, buring sensation, no strength in legs, heart problems, shaking limbs, staying in bed all the time.
- Psychological descriptions were irritable, mind is full of thoughts, mind is never at rest, do not want to talk to anyone, scared.
- Socioeconomic descriptions - I have loans, daughters, able to earn today, son has not work, what to eat, how will i survive-money
- Percieved causes:
- poverty, girl child in the family, physical and emotional ailments e.g. health, married women whose husband lived abroad
- Percieved prognosis:
- a grim future for the person with such illness, chinta rog (worry illness) would worsen day by day
- Help-seeking and treatment in these communities, for somatic complaints they preferred tablets, however local insiders focused on ‘problem-solving’ as socio-economic problems were responsible for chinta rog. Emic and etic approaches to treatment.
- In sum:
- Somantic symptoms, sociocultural link to risk factors, diagnosis and management, emic and etic aproaches are all variations that support this study which explores hte cultural norms and dimensions of depression in Bangladesh
Brown and Harris (1978)
Emic and etic
can also be used on abnormal
Aim – study aetiology of depression in women related to social origins
Participants – 458 women in the inner London area of Camberwell. Had received hospital treatment for depression. Age 18-65.
Theory - tested the existence of four “vulnerability factors” for depressive illness in women.
Vulnerability factors include:
- Genetic factors
- Biological characteristics
- Psychological traits
- Previous maladaptive learning
- Low social support
- Economic adversity
- Environmental trauma
- Interpersonal stresses or losses
- Occupational setbacks or demands
- For example:
- Three or more children under the age of 14 at home
- Lack of an intimate relationship with a husband or boyfriend
- Lack of employment outside of the home
- Loss of a mother before the age of 11 years
Hypothesised – vulnerability factors increased the risk of depression. Interactionist approach
- 37 of the 458 women became depressed (8%). Of these, 33 (90%) had experienced one severe life event or major difficulty.
- Study has shown that not only biological explanations, strong evidence for a pronounced social-class effect.
- A strong association between risk and marital status which held across all social classes. Widowed, divorced or separated.
- Working-class 23% had been depressed compared to 3% in middle-class.
- the model is in line with diathesis- stress hereditary predisposition.
- this suggests that people differ in their vulnerability as only 20% who had experienced severe difficulties became depressed.