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1

How does poverty cause health inequalities

19% in Scotland smoke, 33% in deprived areas

Children in low income families (£10,000>) are up to 2.5% more likely to suffer chronic illness than those in high income families (£52000

2

How does gender cause wealth inequalities

Around 9% pay gap for those in full time work between men and women.

Lone parenthood- 92% of lone parents are women, with lone families being nearly 2x as likely to be in poverty

3

How does gender cause health inequalities

According to Samaritans the male suicide rate is roughly 3x the rate of female rate across the UK

Men have a shorter life expectancy then women , across all social groups, for example in Glasgow the male life expectancy is roughly 6 years less than the female life expectancy

4

How does race cause health inequalities

Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are over 5 times as likely as whites to suffer from diabetes, due to poor diet, and 50 % worse health levels

Illness rates for Pakistani and Bangladeshi women are 10% higher than white women

5

How does race cause wealth inequalities

Pakistani and Bangladeshi families are predominantly strongly Muslim. meaning men work and women stay at home, and generally have larger families and lower paid jobs.

Discrimination- Studies have found that minorities are significantly less likely than whites to get interviews with identical CVs when applying for jobs

6

How does geography cause health inequalities

“Postcode Lottery”People are more likely to see doctors if they have nearby clinics. Furthermore if nearby hospitals have specialist treatment then survival rates are better form heart attacks etc.Generally the south east / London has the best health as more money and better access to NHS services

Due to higher income on average and low unemployment people in the south east and London drink less, smoke less have healthier diets and exercise more. Health inequalities are shown in clusters/ areas next to each other

7

How do lifestyle choices and social class affect health inequalities

The mortality rates for infants in social class E are twice as high as the average.

19% across Scotland smoke, 33% in deprived areas

Young people who are unemployed are significantly more likely to suffer from poor health than those in employment, which makes it more difficult to find work due to poor health. With those on poorer incomes also having poorer diet which contributes

8

How does government policy affect wealth inequalities

Universal credit has helped contribute towards income inequalities, with nearly 2 million people losing £1000 or more annually due to universal credit

Less than 5% of those affected by bedroom tax have been able to downsize, shouting how it has failed to cause people to move. Furthermore the majority have fallen into rent arrears ( behind on payments ) who are affected

9

What has the government done to tackle wealth inequalities

Ending the bedroom tax (Scotland) -

95% were unable to downsize , and stuck with cut benifits. With the majority falling behind on payments as a result.

Some of the poorest had to pay an extra £720 annually as a result, which they simply can not afford, with 70,000 Scots now not having to pay this

Minimum wage-
For 25+ there is now a minimum of £ 7.83 per hour, to encourage more to work than on benifits

However this can increase businesses costs , meaning they need to cut costs, largely in the form of redundancies amongst the least essential and most vulnerable


Winter fuel payment- one off annual payment to pensioners to help keep warm, with those older recieving more, between £100-£300, with more for 80+ year olds

Child Benefit- All those who earn less than 50000 a yeah get a benefit to help with childcare, helping those who earn less be more equal .
Problems- a single parent family earning £60000 will get nothing, whereas a family with two on 49000 will get nothing, not helping inequalities, and further stopping single parent families

10

What has the government done to tackle wealth inequalities

Winter fuel payment- one off annual payment to pensioners to help keep warm, with those older recieving more, between £100-£300, with more for 80+ year olds

Child Benefit- All those who earn less than 50000 a yeah get a benefit to help with childcare, helping those who earn less be more equal .
Problems- a single parent family earning £60000 will get nothing, whereas a family with two on 49000 will get nothing, not helping inequalities, and further stopping single parent families


Ending the bedroom tax (Scotland) -

95% were unable to downsize , and stuck with cut benifits. With the majority falling behind on payments as a result.

Some of the poorest had to pay an extra £720 annually as a result, which they simply can not afford, with 70,000 Scots now not having to pay this

Minimum wage-
For 25+ there is now a minimum of £ 7.83 per hour, to encourage more to work than on benifits

However this can increase businesses costs , meaning they need to cut costs, largely in the form of redundancies amongst the least essential and most vulnerable

11

What has the SCOTTISH government done to tackle health inequalities

MUP 2012- Scotland- law changed so that each unit of alcohol must cost at least 50p. Those in deprived areas are 6x as likely to die of an alcohol related death as those in least deprived areas, and have least income meaning they will be impacted most by this.

Predicted to save nearly 320 deaths annually after 10 years.

Abolition of prescription charges 2011- saves over £9 for Scots for every prescription.
Increase in usage of asthma, crones and other diseases medicine usage

Costs £50 million annually, which many argue could be better spent elsewhere


“Big Killers adverts” - Sir Alex Ferguson Lung cancer advert. Smoking rates down from over 30% in 1999 to 21% in 2016
Death rates form cancer have decreased by 15% from 1994 to 2015, with other big decreases in strokes etc

“Smoking ban “in car With kids-2016
Nearly 1/5 reduction in heart attack admissions in year following
Reduction in child asthma of nearly 20% in years following


Studies have shown that it has stopped Scots inhaling over half a tonne of toxic material since then. 78% of Scots still support it according to a recent survey

12

What has the Scottish government done to tackle health inequalities

“Big Killers adverts” - Sir Alex Ferguson Lung cancer advert. Smoking rates down from over 30% in 1999 to 21% in 2016
Death rates form cancer have decreased by 15% from 1994 to 2015, with other big decreases in strokes etc



MUP 2012- Scotland- law changed so that each unit of alcohol must cost at least 50p. Those in deprived areas are 6x as likely to die of an alcohol related death as those in least deprived areas, and have least income meaning they will be impacted most by this.

Predicted to save nearly 320 deaths annually after 10 years.

Abolition of prescription charges 2011- saves over £9 for Scots for every prescription.
Increase in usage of asthma, crones and other diseases medicine usage

Costs £50 million annually, which many argue could be better spent elsewhere

“Smoking ban “in car With kids-2016
Nearly 1/5 reduction in heart attack admissions in year following
Reduction in child asthma of nearly 20% in years following

13

What are the causes of health inequalities

Race

Religion

Geography

Poverty

Lifestyle Choices and social class

14

What are the causes of wealth inequalities

Race

Gender

Government policy