Flashcards in Sociological approaches I: Risk Society Deck (36):
What is Beck's world risk society about?
Not that the world becomes more dangerous, but rather that the de-bounding of uncontrollable risks disappear. This de-bounding is three-dimensional: spacial, temporal and social
Which characteristics does uncontrollable risks have?
Cannot be link to someone responsible, a specific place and cannot be controlled by a single nation-state
What consequence does the rise of uncontrollable risks have?
That the limits for personal insurance disappear
Which three axis of conflicts do Beck see in WRS?
Ecological conflicts (global)
Global financial conflicts (can in the beginning be both individual and national)
Global terror networks (which empower states and governments)
What does the new terror threats entail?
Since terror is intentional, we move from active trust to active mistrust, and a (partly) move from private insurance to state insurance
What does Beck mean by mutual empowerment?
Governments empower themselves by defining their enemies, but at the same time empower the terrorists by recognizing them.
What is the relationship between the three types of threats?
Ecological and financial risks can now be unleashed intentionally by terrorists
What have we learned about national security after 9/11 a.t. Beck?
It is no longer about national security, since everything happens through transnational cooperation. Nation state is more or less dead, since no nation state can secure itself
What is cosmopolitan sovereignty?
By reducing ones autonomy (through cooperation) the sovereignty can be increased
How can WRS be saved from itself a.t. Beck?
By separating nation and state as state and church were formerly separated.
Social sciences must be reestablished as a transnational science, since the distinction between national/international and domestic/foreign are self-affirming prophecies
What paradigm shift happened from 19th to 20th century?
In the 19th it was about responsibility, in the 20th about solidarity. The 21st has not found is name yet
What was the responsibility paradigm about a.b. Ewald?
Responsibility was about that one person cannot transfer his problems to another, thus security is not a right but a duty. Ones problems (faults) is a sanction for what one should have foreseen.
What is the solidarity paradigm about a.t. Ewald?
There is a shift towards risk; action that harm are no longer faults but accidents, and in the industrial society the question is who should bear the burden of those harms. Becomes the firms when dealing with work related risks. However it also deals with prevention, as humans are part of technical systems where faults are seen as organizational faults. (partly also the safety paradigm)
How does Ewald see risks?
As social - risks institute a social constract between individuals. They are a necessary evil of development, and the question is therefore who must bear the loss
What is the relationship between risk and responsibility?
The one who must bear the loss, is the one deemed responsible. Problem when it is the one hurt, who might not be responsible, but bear the loss anyway
What level do Ewald talk about, that risks are distributed at?
Holistic; in order to see society and courts as distributing responsibility for risks, one has to look at society as a whole instead of individuals
What is the main issues for safety a.t. Ewald?
medical accidents, global threats to the environment and products liability of manufacturers (innovation risk)
When did the precautionary principle develop?
In the 1980s (second part of the solidarity paradigm). Was a surprise to people in developed countries?
What is the precautionary principle about a.t. Ewald?
We went from talking about accidents to disasters due to focus on human agency. Seems to only be usable in context with scientific uncertainty. The principle looks at collective catastrophes
How do Ewald argue that responsibility has returned alongside solidarity?
We no longer accept that risks are okay as long as they are repairable and get compensation (which assumes that everything have a price) - we wont someone to be criminally liable as well.
What is the precautionary hypothesis?
What is the worst that can happen?
How is there a different approach to uncertainty?
Formerly it was an excuse for not knowing - now it is a reason to know more
What is precaution about in the risk society a.t. Ewald?
To prevent certain risks from being taken. Precaution however gives the danger, that it might result in inaction.
How does Beck distinguish between first and second modernity?
First = based on nation states where different relationships is understood in a territorial sense
Second = globalization, individualization, global risks, gender revolution and unemployment
What does the five processes in the second modernity stem from?
They are unforeseen consequences of victories in the first modernity. The challenge is that society has to respond to all of them simultaneously --> reflexive modernity
What is reflexive modernity to Beck?
That radicalized modernity undermined the foundation of the first modernity
How does the western modernity relate to non-western societies?
Challenge not to see non-western as traditional, but rather focus on the similarities to the western modernity
What does Beck mean by the political economy of uncertainty?
Centrally is the power play between territorially fixed political actors (governments, unions) and non-t economic actors (companies). Capital is global, work is local --> can choose between protecting the poor/high unemployment (EU) or decreasing unemployment/high degree of poverty (USA)
What is Beck's point with the cosmopolitan manifesto?
He believes that some transnational-national conflicts and dialogues has to be opened up and organized in a transnational framework. Risk-sharing can be seen as something positive, but in order for it to work there need to be conventions and boundaries around a risk community that shares the burden
What are fabricated uncertainties to Beck?
Risk, danger, sideeffects, insurability, individualization and globalization
They are social constructions that are strategically defined, and they do not exist independently of our perception of them
What are the different perceptions of globalization?
Realists see the consequences of the industrial production as global, whereas social-constructivists look at globality as transnational discourse coalitions
What types of manufactured uncertainties does Beck distinguish between?
Decision-dependent risks that can in principle be controlled, and dangers that cannot be controlled
Beck's three types of global threats?
Conflicts over bads: wealth-driven ecological destruction and technological-industrial dangers
Conflicts related to poverty and conflicts related to NBC-weapon
What is sub politics?
Politics outside of national state political institutions, it means shaping society from below. The means direct the politics.
What does Beck mean by reflexivity?
We are becoming aware that we produce risks ourselves and the possibility of self destruction