Flashcards in Sociological Aspects of Sport Deck (23):
What is Sport Sociology?
a subdivision of sociology that studies sports as a social phenomena. Sports sociologists do not focus on the behavior of specific individuals. Instead, they examine the social patterns, structures, and organization of group activity engaged in sport and physical activity
What are some examples that indicate the social significance of sport?
Television newscasts describe their content as “News, Weather, and Sports”. In 2010 advertising in the Super Bowl was $100,000 per second. In 2005, the U.S. spent 13.2 Billion on licensed merchandise
What are some examples of how sports can symbolize broader social concerns?
In 2008, the NCAA prohibited members to use Native American Mascots (racism). The public debate on whether Michele Wie should compete on the P.G.A. tour (sexism), Michael Vick’s involvement in dog fighting (criminal behavior), and alleged steroid use among players in MLB (drug abuse).
Research by LaVoi & Wiese-Bjornstal (2007) indicate what benefits from sport?
Greater health and well-being, social, emotional, moral, physical and psychological development
What do children learn from coaches, parents, teachers, peers, and siblings in a sport context?
What is normative, important, valued, and expected in a sport context
Can sport be a unifier in society?
Yes, by giving people a sense of personal identity, as well as feelings of group membership and social identification. Examples include the 2010 Super Bowl (most watched TV program of all time in the US), citizens of Louisiana rallying around the Saints (post Katrina) in the 2010 Super Bowl, rooting for the US in the Olympic Games
Does sport provide only benefits to society or is it often seen as exclusionary?
No. Sport has a dark side. It can be exclusionary in terms of race, class, gender, age, ability, and sexual orientation
What is a especially troubling aspects of increased anxiety from sports?
The win at all costs philosophy is increasingly permuating youth sports and increasing anxiety among our youth
When did the level of sexism in sport begin to decrease in the U.S.?
In the wake of the feminist movement that began in the early 1970’s and after Title IX in 1972
What were some of the major changes from Title IX?
Increase in the number of sports offered, access to sports related scholarships and facilities, and increased athletics budgets for women’s sports.
More than triple the amount of sports for women per college, 10 times the amount of women involved in sport, attendance for women’s sport has increased for 25 consecutive years
What inequities remain related to sexism related to the athletes themselves?
Women receive 45% of athletic scholarships even though they represent 57% of all undergraduates, females receive 166,000,000 less in scholarships than men
What inequities exist for women in sport journalism?
Women make up less than 10% of the AP sports editors, assistant sports editors, columnists, and sports reporters
Are men in leadership roles in sports because they are more qualified?
Studies show women are often as qualified, or ore qualified, than their male counterparts. These findings suggest that sport is still a place that produces and reinforces male power
Women make up 40% of all sport participants. What percentage of media coverage do women get?
They only receive 6-8% of the media coverage
Is the way women are covered in the media different than men?
Yes, men are portrayed in ways that emphasize their mental toughness and athletic strength, while women have their physical attractiveness and heterosexuality emphasized rather than their accomplishments as athletes
How is homophobia portrayed in women’s sport?
Fears that women’s participation will harm their reproductive capacity, claims that women’s who engage in more “masculine” sports will turn women into lesbians. People making comments like “if you are an athlete you must be a lesbian” or “Oh, a bunch of dykes”. Recruiters labeling other coaches as having a lesbian reputation.
How is homophobia portrayed in men’s sport?
There is an intolerance due to the historical role of sport as a training and proving ground for males to establish their masculinity and manhood. Some people see being an athlete and gay as a contradiction in terms. GM’s reluctance to have a gay player for the sake of team chemistry
How is racism and athletic ability portrayed in sport?
African American athletes are said to owe their success to their “natural” athletic abilities (suggesting genetic advantage). Similarly white athletes are said to owe their success because of their discipline, intelligence, and hard work. There has been NO discovery of an athletic gene. This is just flawed “race logic”
Could you explain “stacking” as it relates to racism and sport leadership?
Minority groups are often steered away from (or into) certain player positions that are more (or less) central to key decision-making and leadership positions on the field. Whites in MLB have dominated in pitcher, catcher, and infielder (baseballs thinking positions) while blacks have been overrepresented in the outfield, in positions that rely on speed. This reinforces the belief that African American athletes do not have the leadership skills and judgment to become coaches and managers
How is “hierarchy of naming” patterns in sport media coverage reflect racial stereotypes?
This occurs when members of a less powerful group (minorities and women) are referred by their first names only, whereas those in more powerful groups (white men) are referred to either by their full name or their last name
What are the chances of high school seniors of making it at the NCAA level? At the professional level?
NCAA football is 5.7%, NCAA basketball 3.0%, NFL football odds are 10,000 to 1. NBA odds are 20,000 to 1
Sports can be a vehicle for social transformation. What are some examples of this?
Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier in MLB. Smith and Carlos used the ceremonies in the 1968 Olympics to protest racial injustice (they raised their gloved hands in a black power salute and were later stripped of their medals back in the U.S., the land of the free!), Magic Johnson proclaimed he had Aids, Billie Jean King established the Women’s Sports Foundation, Sheryl Swopes “coming out” in 2005