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Flashcards in Solids, Liquids and Gases Deck (34):
1

State the SI units for temperature

C - celcius
K - kelvin

2

State the SI unit for Force

N

3

State the SI unit for Mass

Kg

4

State the SI unit for density

Kg/m3

5

State the SI unit for pressure

Pa

6

State the SI unit for specific heat capacity

J/kgC

7

State the formula for density

Density = mass/volume or ρ = m/v

8

State the formula for volume

Volume = width x length x height

9

State the formula for static pressure

Pressure = force/ area or P=F/A

10

How does pressure act in liquids and gases?

It acts equally in all directions (not just downwards)

11

State the formula for pressure difference at different depths in liquids

Pressure = height x density x gravitational field strength
p = h x ρ x g

12

Describe the arrangement and motion of particles in a solid

least kinetic energy
regular arrangement
vibrate about a fixed point
coldest

13

Describe the arrangement and motion of particles in a liquid

Can move past each other
Disorganised

14

Describe the arrangement and motion of particles in a gas

Most kinetic energy
Random
Rapid/ fast
Big spaces
Exert a force on the walls of their container, they also exert pressure since pressure = force/area

15

State something about proportion with temperature and kinetic energy

(absolute) temperature is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance

16

State something about pressure and gas

Since the gas particles exert a force on the walls of their container, they also exert pressure since pressure = force/area

17

What happens when the temperature of a gas is increased?

The kinetic energy/speed of the particles increases

18

State the lowest temperature possible

0 Kelvin or -273C

19

What is zero Kelvin called?

Absolute zero - at this temperature particles stop moving and there is no pressure (since they don't collide with the walls of the container)

20

Describe how for a fixed volume, what happens if the temperature increases

If the temperature increases then the pressure increases due to -
Increased speed of collision (with the walls of the container) and hence increased force
Increased rate/ frequency of collision (with the walls of the container)

21

State the relationship between kelvin and pressure

Doubling the temperature in kelvin doubles the pressure

22

State the equation linking kelvin and pressure

P1 x T2 = P2 T1

23

State the relationship between halving volume and pressure

(For a fixed temperature) Halving the volume of container doubles the rate of collision (with the walls of the container) and hence doubles the pressure

24

State the equation linking volume and pressure

P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

25

State the relationship between heat energy and temperature change

When heat energy is added to a system, it will either increase the temperature or produce a change of state

26

Describe the changes that occur during melting

The energy is being used to break the bonds between the molecules. (temp./kinetic energy stays the same)

27

Describe the changes that occur during boiling

The energy is being used to overcome the attractive forces and break the bonds between the molecules. (Temp./kinetic energy stays the same)

28

Describe an experiment to show that temperature remains constant during a change of state

Put some stearic acid in a test tube with a thermometer and some wool plugging the top
Attach it to a clamp attached to a clamp stand
Record the temperature every minute
You will notice that as it changes state the temperature remains the same

29

What is specific heat capacity?

Specific heat capacity is the energy required to change the temperature of an object by one degree Celsius per kilogram of mass (J/KgC)

30

State the formula to find the change in thermal energy

Change in thermal energy = mass x specific heat capacity x change in temp. or ΔQ = m x c x ΔT

31

Describe an experiment to determine the specific heat capacity of materials

Equipment:
Thermometer
Ammeter
Voltmeter
Heater
Timer
Aluminium block

Record:
Starting temp.
Final temp.
Time taken
Voltage
Current
Material
Mass of material

Calculate:
Energy supplied to heat the block- energy supplied = current x voltage x time

Determine specific heat capacity for material- C = ΔQ/ m x ΔT

32

State the difference between accuracy and precision

Precision - an indication of the smallest increment that can be measured
Accuracy - An indication of how close a measurement is to its actual value (for the given level of precision)

33

Explain why a measurement might not always be accurate

Instrument not calibrated properly (not zeroed)
Scale is wrong
Parallax error - not on flat surface or not reading eye level/ user error

34

State Boyles Law

If you keep a gas at constant temperature, but halve the volume
The particles move at the same speed (same temperature means same kinetic energy)
But they collide with the walls of the container twice as often
- Halve the volume, double the pressure

For a fixed mass of gas at a constant temperature-
P1 x V1 = P2 x V2