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Physics Term One > Sound And The Ear > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sound And The Ear Deck (23):
1

Frequency

The number of waves that pass a given point per second, measured in hertz (hz)

2

Sound

Sound is a form of energy that travels in longitudinal Waves and can be heard, sound is produced when matter vibrates or moves back and forth very quickly.

3

Infrasound

Sound waves with a frequency below the human hearing range (<20Hz)

4

Ultrasound

Sound waves with a frequency above the normal human hearing range (>20000Hz)

5

Echoes

An echo is when sound waves are reflected off a surface, this allows the sound to be heard multiple times.

6

Reverberation

The length of time a sound can be heard for

7

Sonar

Sonar is a technique used to measure the distance or depth of objects underwater. Sound waves are sent to the object and the sound waves bounce back as an echo. The time the sound wave takes to return is used to find the distance or depth of object.

8

Auditory Nerve

Carries impulses or vibrations from the cochlea to the brain (temporal lobe)

9

Cochlea

The cochlea is a spiral shaped part of the inner ear that is filled with fluid and lined with hairs. The cochlea receives vibrations from the oval window and turns them into pressure waves in the fluid. The pressure waves in the fluid pushes the hairs back and forth creating nerve impulses that are sent to the brain through the auditory nerve.

10

Decibel (dB)

A unit of measurement used to indicate how loud a sound is.

11

Auditory canal (ear canal)

The auditory canal is a small tube that carries sound from the pinna to the tympanic membrane (eardrum)

12

Tympanic membrane (eardrum)

The tympanic membrane is a small piece of skin that vibrates as it receives sound from the auditory canal. The tympanic membrane passes on the vibrations to the ossicles in the middle ear.

13

Echo

An echo is when a sound wave is reflected off a surface. This allows the sound to be heard multiple times

14

Eustachian tube

A small tube which connects the pharynx to the middle ear, the tube allows air pressure to equalise on each side of tympanic membrane.

15

Hertz

A unit of measurement which indicates the amount of waves that pass a given point every second.

16

Loudness

How loud or soft a sound seems to a listener. Loudness is determined by the intensity or the amount of energy in a sound wave. Loudness is measured in decibels, a sound with higher decibels is louder and will have more energy.

17

Medium

The substance that carries a wave or disturbance from one location to another.

18

Ossicles

The three ossicles are located in the middle ear. They are the smallest bones in the human body. They are called malleus, incus and stapes or more commonly known as the hammer, anvil and stirrup. The ear drum vibrates and causes the three ossicles to vibrate. The hammer vibrates the anvil and the anvil vibrates the stirrup which then causes the oval window to vibrate. The ossicles transmit sound to the oval window.

19

Oval window

A membrane in the middle ear which receives vibrations from the ossicles and sends vibrations which cause pressure waves through the fluid filled cochlea in the inner ear.

20

Pinna

The pinna is located at the outer ear, it’s function is to catch sound waves from the air and funnel them to the auditory canal.

21

Pitch

Pitch refers to how high or low a sound is. Sound waves with high frequencies have a high pitch and sound waves with a low frequency have a low pitch

22

Semicircular canals

Three small interconnected semicircular canals which help us to balance. The canals are filled with fluid which moves as our head moves, the fluid moves the hairs back and forth which allows us to balance.

23

Volume

The intensity or amount of energy a sound has. A sound wave which is louder or has more energy will have a higher volume.