Spanish Grammar Flashcards Preview

Deep Wood Academy Spanish > Spanish Grammar > Flashcards

Flashcards in Spanish Grammar Deck (133):
1

Many nouns that denote living things have both a _________ and a ________ form.

masculine

 

feminine

2

Most nouns that end in -o are __________.

masculine

3

Most nouns that end in -a are __________.

feminine

4

Masculine nouns that end in a consonant often have a corresponding feminine form that ends in _______.

-a

5

Some nouns that refer to people use the same form for both masculine and feminine.  These nouns indicate gender by _____________.

 

Give an example:

the article (el or la)

 

el pianista / la pianista

el estudiante / la estudiante

6

Nouns that end in -sión, -ción, -dad, -tad, -tud, and -umbre are ____________.

feminine

7

Many nouns that end in -ma are __________.

masculine

8

A few nouns that end in -o are ____________.

feminine

9

If a noun ends in a vowel simply add _____ to make it plural.

-s

10

If a nound ends in a consonant, simply add _______ to make it plural.

-es

11

If a noun ends in -z, change to z to ______ before adding ________ when making that noun plural.

c

-es

12

If a noun ends in -ión, drop the ____________ before adding __________.

written accent

-es

13

If the plural noun refers to a mixed group, use the ____________.

masculine

14

For compound nouns, change "el" to _______.

 

Give an example:

los

 

abre + latas = abrelatas

open + cans = canopener

el abrelatas / los abrelatas

15

What are the four definite articles in Spanish?

 

                   Singular            Plural

Masc.             el                      los

Fem.               la                      las

16

What are the four indefinite articles in Spanish?

                      Singular               Plural

Masc                   un                     unos

Fem                    una                   unas

 

Note:  The plural indefinite articles are translated "some".

 

17

A Spanish adjective agrees in __________ and __________ with the noun it modifies.

gender

number

18

Adjectives that end in -o have four forms:

                    Singular              Plural

Masc               alto                  altos

Fem                alta                   altas

19

Adjectives that end in -e have two forms:

              Singular         Plural

M/F     inteligente      inteligentes

20

Most adjectives ending with a consonant have two forms:

           Singular          Plural

M/F      popular       populares

21

Adjectives of nationality ending in a consonant have four forms:

               Singular           Plural

Masc      español       españoles

Fem       española      españolas

22

Adjectives ending in -or, -án, -ón, or -ín have four forms:

               Singular          Plural

Masc      hablador      habladores

Fem       habladora    habladoras

23

Adjectives that are descriptive usually __________ the noun they describe.

 

Give an example:

follow

 

casa blanca = white house

24

When an adjective speaks of a quality that is inherent and usually taken for granted, the adjective __________ the noun.

 

Give an example:

precedes

 

la blanca nieve = the white snow

25

Adjectives of quantity usually come __________ the noun. 

 

Give an example:

before

 

pocos libros = little books

26

Subject Pronouns

           Singular         Plural

1st           yo            nosotros

2nd         tú             vosotros

3rd          él                 ellos

              ella                ellas

Ud.       usted            ustedes

27

estar = to be

Conjugate estar:

 

             Singular          Plural

1st           estoy          estamos

2nd         estás             estáis

3rd          está               están

Ud.          está               están

28

What are the four concepts "estar" is used to express?

1.   location

2.  health

3.  changing mood or condition

4.  personal opinion in terms of taste or appearance

29

ser = to be

Conjugate ser:

             Singular          Plural

1st            soy              somos

2nd         eres               sois

3rd            es                 son

Ud.            es                 son

30

What are the seven basic concepts "ser" is used to express?

1.  Description

2.  Profession (omit a/an for unmodified profession)

3.  Point of Origin (de = from)

4.  Identification

5.  Material (de = made of)

6.  Possession or Ownership (de = of)

7.  Where an event takes place

31

de + el = _______, which means _______

del

of the

32

Hay (pronounced like English "eye) means:

 

there is

there are

is there?

are there?

33

When "hay" is followed by a plural noun, the __________ is __________.

article

 

omitted

34

To make a sentence negative, place ______ before "hay".

no

35

All interrogative words carry ____________.

written accents

36

"Cuantos" and "cauntas" are __________ and must agree in _________ with the plural nouns they describe.

adjectives

 

gender

37

To refer to a day of the week in English, we say Monday or _____ Monday.  In Spanish, the article _____ is used with the name of the day to express this idea.

on

 

el

 

38

Days of the week are not __________ in Spanish.

capitalized

39

To form the plural of the days of the week, change _____ to _____ and add _____ only to ____________ and ____________.  The names of the other days already end in _____.

el

los

-s

el sabado

el domingo

-s

40

Numbers 16 thru 19 and 21 thru 9 are expressed as _____ word.  

For instance, 16 is NOT diez y seis, IT IS __________

and

22 is NOT veinte y dos, IT IS __________.

one

dieciseis

veintidos

41

Numbers 31 thru 99 are expressed as __________ words.

For instance, 34 is ________________

and

99 is ______________.

individual

triente y cuatro

noventa y nueve

42

In English we say one hundred and ten.  Spanish does not use y to connect hundreds and the following number.

Examples: 

110 = ____________________

220 = ___________________

315 = ___________________

 

ciento diez

doscientos veinte

trescientos quince

43

When a masculine noun follows the numbers 21, 31, 41, 51, 61, 71, 81, or 91, the _______ is __________ from uno.

Examples:

treinta y un libros = 31 books

cincuenta y un gatos = 51 cats

-o

dropped

44

When a ____________ noun follows a number ending in uno, the feminine form is ________.

Example:

cuarenta y una mujeres = 41 women

 

feminine

una

 

45

The number 100 in Spanish uses the following pattern:

100 = ____________

101 = ____________

150 = ____________

199 = ____________

100 = cien

101 = ciento uno

150 = ciento cincuenta

199 = ciento noventa y nueve

46

Cien becomes __________ if it is followed by any number __________ than itself.

Before all nouns, masculine and feminine, it remains ________.

cien libros = 100 books

cien mujeres = 100 women

ciento

less

cien

47

The numbers 200 to 900 agree with the _________ they modify.

Examples:

900 mirrors = ______________

900 naps = ______________

noun

novecientos espejos

novecientas siestas

48

mil = ________

1,000 years = ___________

2,000 years = ____________

1,000

mil años

dos mil años

49

1,000,000 = __________

a million dollars = _______________

two million questions = ___________________

un millón (de)

un millón de dólares

dos millones de preguntas

50

Mil does not __________.

2,000 = __________

3,000 = __________

5,000 = __________

Nor does it need the article _____ in front of it.

change

dos mil

tres mil

cinco mil

un

51

The plural _______ is used only to refer to a large but inexact amount, the way English uses _________.

Example:

Hay miles de personas en el restaurante.

means

There are tons of people in the restaurant.

 

 

 

 

miles

tons

52

Spanish uses the __________ to separate thousands and the __________ to indicate decimals.

Example:  $1.095,25

This makes __________ head _________.

period

comma

 

Mommy´s

explode

53

Ordinal numbers in Spanish __________ the noun and agree in __________ with the noun they describe.

precede

gender

54

Primero and tercero drop the _______ before a __________ noun.

Examples:  el primer hombre

el tercer día

-o

masculine

55

Ordinal numbers are used for kings, queens, popes, and centuries.  In these cases, they _________ the noun they describe.

el siglo segundo = the second century

Carlos Quinto = Charles the Fifth

follow

56

Beginning with the ordinal number eleventh, state the __________ first, then the __________ number.

Example:  Eleventh Street = ______________

noun

cardinal

la calle once

57

Spanish uses the cardinal numbers ___ to ____ to indicate all days of the month except the _______.

Spanish uses an __________ number only to indicate the __________ of the month.

2

31

first

ordinal

first

 

58

first of the month

el primero del mes

59

¿Qué hora es?

What hour is it?

What time is it?

 

60

In telling time, Spanish uses the _______ person singular or plural of _______.

Examples:

It is one o´clock = _____________

It is four o´clock = ______________

third

ser

Es la una

Son las cuatro

 

61

de la mañana

(of the) morning

a.m.

62

de la tarde

(of the) afternoon

p.m.

 

63

de la noche

(of the) night

p.m.

64

To indicate the exact hour or sharp, Spanish uses __________ or __________.

Examples:

It is exactly five o´clock. = ___________________

It is ten o´clock sharp. = __________________

exactamente

en punto

Son las cinco exactamente.

Son las diez en punto.

 

65

To indicate an approximate time, Spanish uses a eso de + the hour OR the hour + más o menos.

Examples:

It is about one o´clock. = ________________

It is one o´clock, more or less. = ______________

Es a eso de la una.

Es la una, más o menos.

 

66

To express a time after the hour, state the hour + y + the number of minutes.

Examples:

It is 1:20 = ___________

It is 5:10 = ___________

 

Es la una y veinte.

Son las cinco y diez.

67

When it is a quarter after the hour, Spanish uses quince or cuarto.

Examples:

It is 3:15 = _________

It is 6:15 = _________

Son las tres y quince.

Son las seis y cuarto.

68

When it is half past the hour, Spanish uses treinta or media.

Examples:

It is 9:30 = ____________

It is 8:30 = _____________

Son las nueve y treinta.

Son las ocho y media.

69

To express a time before the hour, state the hour + menos + the number of minutes.

Examples:

It is 2:50 = _______________

It is 10:55 = _______________

It is 8:45 = _______________

It is 11:45 = ________________

Son las tres menos diez.

Son las once menos cinco.

Son las nueve menos cuarto.

Son las doce menos quince.

70

menos

minus

71

An alternate way to express time before the hour is to state the number of minutes + para + the hour.  This expression is ______ a full sentence.

Example:

Five minutes to three o´clock = _________________

not

Cinco para las tres

72

To indicate something is happening at a certain time, Spanish uses an expression with the preposition _________.

Example:

At what hour? = ___________

At two o´clock = ___________

a

¿A qué hora?

A las dos.

73

Spanish nouns ending in -a that begin with a stressed _____ or _____ are feminine, but they take the __________ article el in the singular and the ______________ article las in the plural.

Give an example.

a

ha

masculine

feminine

el arma, las armas

74

How many conjugations does Spanish have?

3

75

What are the infinitive endings of the 3 Spanish conjugations?

ar

er

ir

76

AR conjugation endings:

o                   amos

as                  áis

a                    an

77

All Spanish words that end in a ________ or the consonants _____ or _____ have their natural stress on the ___________ syllable.

vowel

n

s

penultimate (second-to-last)

78

The preposition a means ______ in English.

When a is followed by the masculine _____, the words contract to _________.

al means __________.

to

el

al

to the

79

ER conjugation endings

o                    emos

es                   éis

e                     en

80

IR conjugation endings

o                   imos

es                  ís

e                    en

81

Spanish verbs are considered __________ if there is a __________ in the __________ when they are conjugated.

irregular

change

stem

82

The nosotros and vosotros forms are __________ by the stem change in the _________ tense.

unaffected

present

83

Irregular verbs that end in -ar  and -er have ______ possible changes in their stems.  

These changes are:

_____ changes to _____

_____ changes to _____

two

e changes to ie

o changes to ue

84

Name four verbs ending in -er that are irregular in the yo form only:

 

hacer = to do, to make

poner = to put

saber = to know (a fact), to know how

ver = to see

85

Irregular verbs that end in -ir have _______ possible changes in their stem.

These changes are:

_____ changes to _____

_____ changes to _____

_____ changes to _____

3

e changes to ie

e changes to i

o changes to ue

 

86

Name two verbs ending in -ir that are irregular in the yo form only:

oír = to hear

salir = to leave, to exit, to go out

87

Ir + a + an infinitive is used to express ______________.

The English equivalent is _______________________.

Example:  Ellos van a cantar esta noche. = ____________.

To form a question place the subject directly after the conjugated form of ir or after the infinitive.

Example:  ¿Van ellos a cantar esta noche? = _____________.

future time

to be going to do something

They are going to sing tonight.

Are they going to sing tonight?

88

What is an idiom?

Idioms are expressions that do not translate directly from one language to another.

89

Many Spanish idioms use the verb  ________.

tener

90

acabar de + infinitive =

to have just done something

91

dejar de + infinitive =

to stop doing something

92

tener que + infinitive =

to have to do something

93

tratar de + infinitive =

to try to do something

94

volver a + infinitive =

to do something again

95

What is the most common relative pronoun in everyday speech?

que

(that, which, who)

96

What can the relative pronoun que refer to?

persons or things

either singular or plural

97

Que can be used as the _________________.

When used this way, que refers to ____________.

When used as the object of a preposition, que is translated as _________.

object of a preposition

things only (not people)

which

98

When used as a conjuction, que is translated as _______.

that

99

Para has _____ meanings in English.

They are: __________

 

2

for

in order to

100

How do you ask how long someone has been doing something?

Give an example:

¿Cuánto tiempo hacer que + verb in the present tense

 

¿Cuánto tiempo hace que él estudia el francés?  = How long has he been studying French?

101

How do you answer the question of how long someone has been doing something?

Give an example:

Hace + length of time + que + verb in the present tense

 

Hace un mes que él estudia el francés. = He has been studying French for a month.

102

How many possessive adjectives are there?

Name them:

5

mi

tu 

su

nuestro

vuestro

103

Which possessive adjectives have only two forms (singular and plural)?

mi, mis

tu, tus

su, sus

104

Possessive adjectives in Spanish agree in _______ and ______ with the noun they modify.

 

gender

number

105

Possessive adjectives ________ the noun they modify.

precede

106

Because su/sus can be very ambiguous, to clarify meaning you may use:

the noun + de + the pronoun

107

Mi, tu and su do not have __________ and __________ forms.

masculine

feminine

108

Which possessive adjectives have four forms each?

nuestro, nuestra, nuestros, nuestras

vuestro, vuestra, vuestros, vuestras

109

Possessive adjectives are _____ used with _____________ or _____________.

Rather, the ______________ is used.

not

articles of clothing

body parts

definite article

110

Name all five possessive adjectives:

mi, mis

tu, tus

su, sus

nuestro, -a, -os, -as

vuestro, -a, -os, -as

111

In Spanish there are _____ demonstrative adjectives.

They agree in _______ and ________ with the nouns they modify.

three

number

gender

112

Demonstrative adjectives have _____ forms.

four

113

this

these

(demonstrative adjectives for things near the speaker)

           Masculine   Feminine

this         este              esta

these      estos            estas

114

that

those

(demonstrative adjective for things near the listener)

            Masculine   Feminine

that          ese            esa

those       esos          esas

115

that (over there)

those (over there)

(demonstrative adjectives for things far from both the speaker and listener)

                               Masculine   Feminine

that (over there)         aquel        aquella

those (over there)    aquellos     aquellas

 

116

Neuter demonstrative pronouns refer to ______________, a ______________, or a _______________.

an object that is not know

a statement

or a general idea

117

There are ______ neuter demonstrative pronouns.

Name them:

three

esto = this

eso = that

aquello = that (farther away in place or time)

118

Comparative adjectives express what 3 concepts?

more than

less than

the same as

119

What is the comparative structure to express more than?

más + adjetivo + que

more + adjective + than

120

What is the comparative structure that expresses less than?

menos + adjetivo + que

less + adjective + than

121

What is the comparative structure that expresses the same as?

tan + adjetivo + como

as + adjective + as

122

What 2 things do superlative adjectives express?

the most

the least

123

What is the superlative structure that expresses the most?

el (la) más + adjetivo + de

(the) most + adjective + of

124

What is the superlative structure that expresses the least?

el (la) menos + adjetivo + de

(the) least + adjective + of

125

In the superlative structure, Spanish de can be translated as ______.

in

126

Menor and mayor refer only to ____________.

If you want to compare trees or buildings use the ________________.

Give an example:

people

regular comparative structure

Estos árboles son menos viejos que aquellos árboles.

127

more + noun + than

I have more pencils than Maria.

más + nombre + que

Tengo más lápices que María.

128

less + noun + than

She has fewer books than I.

menos + nombre + que

Ella tiene menos libros que yo.

129

as much + noun + as

as many + noun + as

He has as much hair as his uncle.

tanto + nombre + como

Él tiene tanto pelo como su tío.

130

Tanto is an __________ and agrees with the ________ it modifies.

adjective

noun

131

In Spanish adverbs are formed by adding _______ to the _____________ of the adjective.

 

-mente

feminine form

132

If an adjective does not end in ____ it has ________ form for masculine and feminine.

To form an adverb from these adjectives simply add _______ to the adjective.

-o

the same

-mente

133

If there are two adverbs in a series, only the ________ will add -mente.  

The first in the series takes the ____________________.

Example:  I speak clearly and concisely.

final one

feminine form of the adjective

Example:  Hablo clara y concisamente.