Specific Antiboitic Characteristics Flashcards Preview

Disease & Defense - Unit 2 > Specific Antiboitic Characteristics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Specific Antiboitic Characteristics Deck (64):
1

Penicillin V: mechanism

cell wall synthesis inhibitor; bactericidal

2

Penicillin V: pharmacokinetics

good oral; renal excretion

3

Penicillin V: spectrum

gram+ cocci (Staph/Strep/Entero); gram- cocci (neisseria, M.catarrhalis); gram+ rods; most anearobes (not Bacteriodes)

4

Penicillin V: side effects

anaphylaxis (rare), rash (common)

5

Amoxicillin: drug category

Penicillins

6

Amoxicillin: mechanism

cell wall synthesis inhibitor; bactericidal

7

Amoxicillin: pharmacokinetics

good oral; renal excretion

8

Amoxicillin: spectrum

gram-rods (H. flu, E. coli) + gram+ cocci

9

Amoxicillin: side effects

superinfection possible

10

Cephalexin: drug category

Cephalosporins (1st generation)

11

Cephalexin: mechanism

cell wall synthesis inhibitor; bactericidal

12

Cephalexin: pharmacokinetics

good oral; renal excretion

13

Cephalexin: spectrum

extended spectrum; gram+ cocci; gram- rods (diarrhea E.coli)

14

Cephalexin: side effects

allergy, less severe than penicillins

15

Cefdinir: drug category

Cephalosporins (3rd generation)

16

Cefdinir: mechanism

cell wall synthesis inhibitor; bactericidal

17

Cefdinir: pharmacokinetics

good oral; good CNS penetration; renal excretion

18

Cefdinir: spectrum

extended spectrum; expanded gram- rads; moderate antipseudomonal

19

Cefdinir: side effects

superinfection possible

20

Vancomycin: mechanism

cell wall synthesis inhibitor; bactericidal

21

Vancomycin: pharmacokinetics

poor oral; renal excretion

22

Vancomycin: spectrum

narrow spectrum=gram+ cocci; MRSA, enterococci; anaerobes: C. difficile

23

Vancomycin: side effects

ototoxicity/renal toxicity; routine monitoring of Cp levles

24

Azithromycin: drug category

Macrolides

25

Azithromycin: mechanism

protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic

26

Azithromycin: pharmacokinetics

good oral or IV; liver metabolism

27

Azithromycin: spectrum

extended spectrum; cocci/rods=gram+; rods=some gram-bacilli; atypical=mycoplasma/chlamydia

28

Azithromycin: side effects

GI distrurbances

29

Azithromycin: drug-drug interactions

inhibit P450 metabolism-->DD interactions

30

Doxycycline/Minocycline: drug category

Macrolides

31

Doxycycline/Minocycline: mechanism

protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic

32

Doxycycline/Minocycline: pharmacokinetics

good oral ; non-renal metabolism

33

Doxycycline/Minocycline: spectrum

broad spectrum; atypical=mycoplasma/chlamydia

34

Azithromycin: side effects

abnormal bone/tooth development, fungal superinfection

35

Azithromycin: drug-drug interactions

w/metal cations in stomach

36

Doxycycline/Minocycline: major clinical use

main choice in CA-MRSA

37

Clindamycin: drug category

Lincomycins

38

Clindamycin: mechanism

protein synthesis inhibitor; bacteriostatic

39

Clindamycin: pharmacokinetics

good oral or IV; liver metabolism

40

Clindamycin: spectrum

narrow spectrum; gram+ cocci, anaerobes

41

Clindamycin: side effects

severe diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis

42

Clindamycin: major clinical use

main choice in CA-MRSA

43

Chloramphenicol: mechanism

protein synthesis inhibitor

44

Chloramphenicol: pharmacokinetics

good oral or IV; distributes to CNS/CSF; liver metabolism?

45

Chloramphenicol: spectrum

broad spectrum; gram+/- cocci (H. flu, Neisseria)

46

Chloramphenicol: side effects

bone marrow toxicity, gray-baby syndrome

47

Aminoglycosides: mechanism

protein synthesis inhibitor

48

Aminoglycosides: pharmacokinetics

poor oral; renal excretion

49

Aminoglycosides: spectrum

narrow spectrum; gram - aerobes (E. coli, pseudomonas)

50

Aminoglycosides: side effects

ototoxicity/renal toxicity; routine monitoring of Cp levles

51

Fluoroquinolones: mechanism

inhibition of DNA gyrase; bactericidal

52

Fluoroquinolones: pharmacokinetics

good oral; primarily renal excretion

53

Fluoroquinolones: spectrum

extended spectrum: excellent gram +/-

54

Fluoroquinolones: major clinical uses

Pseudomonas, UTIs

55

Fluoroquinolones: side effects

superinfection, DD interaction

56

Metronidazole: mechanism

inhibition of DNA gyrase; bactericidal

57

Metronidazole: pharmacokinetics

good oral; hepatic metabolism

58

Metronidazole: spectrum

anaerobic (C. difficile), protozoa

59

Metronidazole: side effects

antabuse-like reaction

60

Sulfonamides: mechanism

inhibit folate metabolism; bacteriostatic; bactericidal w/sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim

61

Sulfonamides: pharmacokinetics

good oral or IV; liver/renal elimination

62

Sulfonamides: spectrum

broad spectrum; gram+/-; chlamydia

63

Sulfonamides: side effects

hypersensitivity skin reactions

64

Sulfonamides: major clinical use

main choice in CA-MRSA