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Flashcards in speech and aphasia Deck (29)
1

components of a mental status examination

1. Arousal and attention - level of consciousness, digit span, serial sevens. 2. Memory - orientation, three words at five minutes, remote events 3. Language - fluency, comprehension, repetition, naming, reading, writing 4. Visuospatial function - clock drawing, tests for hemineglect 5. Mood and affect - inquiries about feelings, observations of affect 6. Complex cognition - executive function, similarities, proverbs, judgment, insight

2

define acute confusional state

a common and usually reversible disorder of attention

3

define amnesia

impaired recent memory, with deficient new learning

4

define aphasia

an acquired disorder of language resulting from damage to brain areas subserving linguistic capacity

5

define apraxia

impairment of learned movement, often associated with aphasia

6

define agnosia

impaired recognition in the visual, auditory, or tactile modality

7

define visuospatial impairment

difficulty interpreting spatial relationships

8

define hemineglect

failure to attend to one side (usually the left) of the body or extrapersonal space

9

define personality change

a departure from normal character or comportment that often implies a frontal lobe lesion

10

define dementia

multiple coexisting neurobehavioral deficits (e.g. amnesia, aphasia, personality change)

11

brain structures involved in speech

motor cortices, corticobulbar tracts, basal ganglia, cerebellum, lower motor neurons innervating the pharyx and larnyx, and pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles. Cerebral cortex is required for language.

12

what is dysarthria

a disorder of speech due to motor system involvement

13

what is dysphonia

a disorder of voice related to laryngeal disease

14

causes of mutism

severe aphasia, anarthria (no motor fuction) or aphonia (laryngeal failure) or psychiatric

15

describe cerebral dominance

language is represented in left hemisphere in most people. While 90% of population is right handed and 10% left handed, 99% of right handed people are left dominant for language but 67% of left handers are also left dominant for language.

16

testing for aphasia

requires the assessment of spontaneous speech, auditory comprehension, repetition, and naming. In literate individuals, reading and writing should also be examined, as impaired reading (alexia) and writing (agraphia) typically accompany aphasia

17

what is nonfluent spontaneous speech

labored, effortful speech and <6 word phrases

18

what area of brain is language associated with

perisylvian area, including brocas and wernickes area

19

what is a paraphasia

unintended sullables or words. 1. literal (pipe becomes hike), 2. verbal/semantic (wife becomes mother), 3. neologism (new and meaningless words)

20

What is impaired in all types of aphasias

naming common items

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For Brocas aphasia, describe spontaneous speech, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming and localization

Nonfluent spontaneous speech, good auditory comprehension, poor repetition, poor naming, localized to Broca's area in left hemisphere

22

For Wernickes aphasia, describe spontaneous speech, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming and localization

Fluent spontaneous speech, poor auditory comprehension, poor repetition, poor naming, localized to Wernicke's area in left hemisphere

23

For conduction aphasia, describe spontaneous speech, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming and localization

Fluent spontaneous speech, good auditory comprehension, poor repetition, poor naming, localized to Arcuate fasciculus area in left hemisphere

24

For global aphasia, describe spontaneous speech, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming and localization

Nonfluent spontaneous speech,poor auditory comprehension, poor repetition, poor naming, localized to Perisylvian region in left hemisphere

25

For transcortical motor aphasia, describe spontaneous speech, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming and localization

Nonfluent spontaneous speech, good auditory comprehension, good repetition, poor naming, localized to Anterior borderzone region in left hemisphere

26

For transcortical sensory aphasia, describe spontaneous speech, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming and localization

Fluent spontaneous speech, poor auditory comprehension, good repetition, poor naming, localized to Posterior borderzone region in left hemisphere

27

For anomic aphasia, describe spontaneous speech, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming and localization

Fluent spontaneous speech, good auditory comprehension, good repetition, poor naming, localized to angular gyrus region in left hemisphere

28

For mixed transcortical aphasia, describe spontaneous speech, auditory comprehension, repetition, naming and localization

Nonfluent spontaneous speech, poor auditory comprehension, good repetition, poor naming, localized to angular gyrus region in left hemisphere

29

aphasia treatment

1. treat causative lesion. Most functional improvement in language and cognition occurs in first year. Prognosis depends on size of lesion and age of patient (ie. Young patients with small lesions recover best). 2. speech/language therapy