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Flashcards in Spinal Cord Injury Deck (49)
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1

What is a spinal cord injury?

SCI is damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function

2

Tetraplegia/Quadriplegia

injury to the spinal cord between the spinal cord segments C1 and T1

this causes paralysis and loss of feeling involving 4 limbs as well as the bladder, bowel and sexual organs

3

Paraplegia

injury to the spinal cord below the neck

below T1 cord segment

causes weakness and loss of feeling in the trunk, legs and bladder, bowel and sex organs

arms and hands are normal

4

Percentages of spinal cord injury

46% Land transport crashes

32% High or Low fall

5

Function of the vertebral column

1. support and carry the weight and trunk and limbs
2. provide movement and flexibility
3. protect and encase the spinal cord
4. provide attachment for other structures

6

where are the 33 Vertebrae located

7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral (fused)
4 coccygeal (fused)

7

what are the four curvatures

cervical - concave

thoracic - convex

lumbar - concave

sacral - convex

8

C1 and C2

C1 - atlas
C2 - axis

allow for us to rotate our head, look up, to the side, look down, mobility

delicate and susceptible to injury if placed under force

9

Which is the longest part of the vertebrae

thoracic

10

Which part of the vertebrae articulates with and attaches to the ribs

thoracic

11

lumbar

lower back
receives the most stress and is the weight bearing component of the spine

12

caudia equina

tail of nerves exiting through the sacrum/ base of vertebral column

13

what matter protects the spinal cord

dura mater
arachnoid matter

14

epidural space

made up of fat, contains blood vessels that supply the cord and other structures

15

dorsal root

within the dorsal root there is a spinal ganglion where motor neurons communicate

16

blood supply of spinal cord

anterior spinal artery and its branches supply the antero-lateral half of the spinal cord

paired posterior spinal arteries and branches supply the postero-lateral half of the spinal cord

17

spinothalamic tract

simple touch,, pain and temperature on opposite side of body

18

dorsal (posterior) columns

sensations from same side of body

19

what are the 3 main ascending (afferent) pathways

non-specific ascending pathway
specific ascending pathway
spinocerebellar tracts

20

non-specific ascending pathway

formed by the lateral and anterior spinothalamic tract

transmits pain, temperature, and coarse touch

21

specific ascending pathway

formed by the dorsal white column
transmits discriminative touch and vibrations

22

spinocerebellar tracts

fromed by the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts
transmits information about muscle and tendon stretch to the cerebellum which utilises this information to coordinate skeletal muscle movement

23

what are the descending pathways

direct (pyramidal) system
indirect (Extrapyramidal) system

24

Direct (pyramidal) system

transmit information down the large corticospinal (pyramidal tract). axons descend from the brain without synapsing with any other until they reach the level they need and communication with neurons in the ventral horn

regulate fast and fine movements e.g. writing

25

Indirect (Extrapyramidal) system

includes all other descending (efferent) pathways
complex with multisynapses, regulate
-muscles used in balance and posture
-coarse limb movement
-head, neck and eye movement that follows moving objects

26

what is the somatic nervous system involved in

voluntary movement
sensory input
reflex arc

27

autonomic nervous system

divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic
involuntary and automatically
innervates all of the internal organs

28

Sympathetic nervous system

arises from the thoracolumbar region of the spine. the SNS is responsible for our 'fight or flight' response

when stimulated it causes:
-increase heartbeat
-dilation of airways
-reduced digestion
-pupil dilation
-inhibits urination

29

Parasympathetic nervous system

arises from cranial nerves and sacral nerves and promotes all internal responses in a relaxed state

when stimulated it causes:
-promotion of digestion
-constriction of pupils
-slowing of heart rate
-stimulation of urination

30

blunt injury

forced flexion or flexion with rotation
forced extension (hyperextension)
vertical compression (axial loading)