Flashcards in Stallion Deck (29):
Describe the method of chemical ejaculation in the stallion
- loading dose of Imipramine IV (lowers ejaculatory threshold)
- large dose of Xyalzine an hour later
- ejaculation during deep phase of sedation
What is the minimum number of motile, morphological normal sperm for the stallion to be considered satisfactory?
What is the minimum number of motile sperm for fresh semen AI?
What is the minimum number of motile sperm for cooled semen AI?
What is the minimum number of motile sperm for frozen semen AI?
load 800 million to 1 million
- 240 million at thawing
Where do urethral rents most commonly occur?
convex surface of urethra at ischial arch
What are the semen fractions and their respective sources?
presperm - bulbourethral glands, urethra
sperm rich - epididymis, ampulla
sperm poor - prostate, vesicular glands
gel - vesicular glands
What is hydrocele/vaginocele?
serous fluid between the visceral and parietal layers of the vaginal tunic
What is variocele?
dilation of the vessels of the pampiniform plexus
How is priapism treated?
- anticholinergic or B2-adrenergic drugs
- Phenylephrine injected into CCP
- surgical irrigation of CCP
What is the cause of coital exanthema?
Equine Herpesvirus - 3
What is the most common neoplasia of young horses?
What is testicular degeneration?
acquired atrophy of seminiferous tubules
What is the most common penile neoplasia of stallions?
squamous cell carcinoma
What is ampullar spermiostasis?
- excessive accumulation of spermatozoa
Bloody, brown, or beige semen is indicative of what?
What causes contagious equine metritis?
What causes Dourine?
What is Dourine?
edema of external genitalia
What value of seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase indicates a blockage?
< 100 U/L
What are shuttle stallions?
stallions that travel to southern hemisphere to breed
What are the treatment options for urethral rents?
- sexual abstinence
- perineal urethrostomy
- perineal incision of CSP without entering lumen
What is the thoracolumbar reflex arc?
contracture of smooth muscle of ductus deferens, accessory glands, and bladder trigone
How is urospermia treated?
- completely empty bladder before ejaculation
- Furosemide to dile urine contamination
- bladder lavage
- dilate raw semen immediately
What is retrograde ejaculation?
semen in the bladder
When does normal testicular descent occur?
last 30 days in utero or first 10 days after birth
What is formed from the gubernaculum?
- proper ligament of testes
- caudal ligament of epididymis
- scrotal ligament
Which breeds are predisposed to cryptorchidism?