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Flashcards in Stats A level Deck (36)
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1

What does the product moment correlation coefficient describe?

The linear correlation (association) between two variables

2

General hypothesis testing: What is the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis for a one tailed test?

H₀: p = 0
H₁: p > 0
or
H₀: p = 0
H₁: p < 0

3

General hypothesis testing: What is the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis for a two tailed test?

H₀: p = 0
H₁: p ≠ 0

4

What does the ∩ symbol mean?

Intersection: Eg. A ∩ B is the area that is in both A AND B

5

What does the ∪ symbol mean?

Union: Eg, A ∪ B is the area in A OR B

6

What does the A' symbol mean?

Complement: Eg, A' is everything NOT in A

7

P(B|A) =

P(B∩A)/P(A)

8

What is the area under a continuous probability curve equal to?

1

9

What is the distribution of X, if it is normally distributed?

X ~ N(μ, σ²) where μ is the population mean, and σ² is the population variance

10

Describe the normal distribution

1) μ is the population mean, and σ² is the population variance
2) symmetrical (mean=median=mode)
3) Bell-shaped curve with asymptotes at each end
4) Total area under curve = 1
5) Point of inflection at μ+σ and μ-σ

11

What is the mean, and standard variation of the standard normal distribution?
How is the standard normal variable written?

mean = 0, standard deviation = 1
Z ~ N (0, 1²)

12

When can the binomial distribution be approximated by a normal distribution?

If n is large (>50) and p is close to 0.5.

13

When using the normal distribution to approximate the binomial distribution, what is the mean and standard deviation?

μ = np
σ = √np(1-p)

14

What do you need to apply when calculating probabilities, using a normal distribution to approximate a binomial distribution?

Continuity correction

15

For a random sample of size n taken from a random variable X ~ N(μ, σ²) , how is the sample mean normally distributed?

x̅ ~ N(μ, σ²/n)
(That is a capital X)

16

What does Z= equal? (Combining the normal distribution of a sample mean, and Z values)

x̅ ~ N(μ, σ²/n)
Z ~ N (0, 1)
Z =( x̅ - μ )/ (σ/√n)

17

How do you convert between Z value and X?

Z = (X - μ) / σ

18

What is the letter used for product moment correlation coefficient?

r

19

Describe the product moment correlation coefficient

It describes the linear correlation between two variables
It can take the value between -1 (perfect negative correlation) and 1 (perfect positive correlation)
If r = 0 then there is no linear correlation

20

Suggest a reason why two variables could still have a relationship but have a product moment correlation coefficient of zero

They might have a non-linear relationship

21

What are the letters used in a product moment correlation coefficient hypothesis test?

r = PMCC for sample
ρ (rho)= PMCC for a whole population

22

Write down the null and alternative hypothesis for a two tailed PMCC test?

H₀: ρ = 0
H₁: ρ ≠ 0

23

How do you complete a hypothesis test for product moment correlation coefficient? Calculator or table?

You have to use the calculated values in the table in the back of the formula booklet

24

What does this notation mean?
n(R) and P(R)

n(R) = The number of outcomes in the event R
P(R) = The probability that event R occurs

25

Which values can a continuous random variable take?

One of infinitely many values

26

What shape is a normal distribution?

bell-shaped

27

How much data lies within one standard deviation of the mean?

About 68%

28

How much data lies within two standard deviations of the mean?

About 95%

29

How much data lies within three standard deviations of the mean?

About 99.7%

30

Where are the points of inflection on a normal distribution?

μ ± σ