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Flashcards in study sciences Deck (19):
0

what is the hierarchy of studies from least important to most important?

case report
case control study
cohort study
randomized control trial
practice guidelines
systematic review
meta-analysis

1

what is a case study?

an article that describes and interprets an individual case often written in the form of a detailed story

2

what is a case control study?

compares pts w/ diseases w/ pts who don't have them and looks back RETROSPECTIVELY to determine risk factors

3

what is a cohort study?

one or more samples are followed PROSPECTIVELY and evaluations about disease are conducted to determine risk factors

4

what is a randomized controlled trial?

randomly assigns participants into an experimental group or control group w/ the only difference the outcome variable

5

what are practice guidelines?

statement that outlines current best practice to inform health care professionals and patients in making clinical decisions

6

what is a systematic review?

comprehensive review of all relevant studies on a particular clinical or health-related topic/question

7

what is a meta-analysis?

systematically combining pertinent qualitative and quantitative study data from several selected studies to develop a single conclusion that has greater statistical power

8

what is a Type 1 (alpha) error?

null hypothesis true in reality
research the alternative hypothesis is true

9

what is a type 2 (beta) error?

alternative hypothesis is true in reality
the null hypothesis is true in research

10

what is a P-value and what value is statistically significant?

states how unlikely it is that the result occurred simply by chance if the null hypothesis is true
<0.05

11

what is the formula for RR (relative risk)?

(risk of treatment group)/ (risk of non-treatment group)= RR

12

what is the formula for ARR (absolute risk reduction)?

(risk of non-treatment group)- (risk of treatment group)= ARR

13

what is the formula for RRR (relative risk reduction)?

ARR/ (risk of non-treatment group)= RRR

14

what is the formula for NNT (number needed to treat)?

100/ARR= NNT

15

What is the formula for Odds Ratio?

(procedure 1 outcome 1/ procedure 1 outcome 2) (procedure 2 outcome 1/ procedure 2 outcome 2)

*1= no statistical difference b/w groups

16

Correlation does NOT EQUAL __________

Causation

17

What is correlation?

the magnitude of the relationship b/w different variables

18

what is regression?

makes a prediction or causal inference