Flashcards in study sciences Deck (19):
what is the hierarchy of studies from least important to most important?
case control study
randomized control trial
what is a case study?
an article that describes and interprets an individual case often written in the form of a detailed story
what is a case control study?
compares pts w/ diseases w/ pts who don't have them and looks back RETROSPECTIVELY to determine risk factors
what is a cohort study?
one or more samples are followed PROSPECTIVELY and evaluations about disease are conducted to determine risk factors
what is a randomized controlled trial?
randomly assigns participants into an experimental group or control group w/ the only difference the outcome variable
what are practice guidelines?
statement that outlines current best practice to inform health care professionals and patients in making clinical decisions
what is a systematic review?
comprehensive review of all relevant studies on a particular clinical or health-related topic/question
what is a meta-analysis?
systematically combining pertinent qualitative and quantitative study data from several selected studies to develop a single conclusion that has greater statistical power
what is a Type 1 (alpha) error?
null hypothesis true in reality
research the alternative hypothesis is true
what is a type 2 (beta) error?
alternative hypothesis is true in reality
the null hypothesis is true in research
what is a P-value and what value is statistically significant?
states how unlikely it is that the result occurred simply by chance if the null hypothesis is true
what is the formula for RR (relative risk)?
(risk of treatment group)/ (risk of non-treatment group)= RR
what is the formula for ARR (absolute risk reduction)?
(risk of non-treatment group)- (risk of treatment group)= ARR
what is the formula for RRR (relative risk reduction)?
ARR/ (risk of non-treatment group)= RRR
what is the formula for NNT (number needed to treat)?
What is the formula for Odds Ratio?
(procedure 1 outcome 1/ procedure 1 outcome 2) (procedure 2 outcome 1/ procedure 2 outcome 2)
*1= no statistical difference b/w groups
Correlation does NOT EQUAL __________
What is correlation?
the magnitude of the relationship b/w different variables