Flashcards in study sciences Deck (19):

0

## what is the hierarchy of studies from least important to most important?

###
case report

case control study

cohort study

randomized control trial

practice guidelines

systematic review

meta-analysis

1

## what is a case study?

### an article that describes and interprets an individual case often written in the form of a detailed story

2

## what is a case control study?

### compares pts w/ diseases w/ pts who don't have them and looks back RETROSPECTIVELY to determine risk factors

3

## what is a cohort study?

### one or more samples are followed PROSPECTIVELY and evaluations about disease are conducted to determine risk factors

4

## what is a randomized controlled trial?

### randomly assigns participants into an experimental group or control group w/ the only difference the outcome variable

5

## what are practice guidelines?

### statement that outlines current best practice to inform health care professionals and patients in making clinical decisions

6

## what is a systematic review?

### comprehensive review of all relevant studies on a particular clinical or health-related topic/question

7

## what is a meta-analysis?

### systematically combining pertinent qualitative and quantitative study data from several selected studies to develop a single conclusion that has greater statistical power

8

## what is a Type 1 (alpha) error?

###
null hypothesis true in reality

research the alternative hypothesis is true

9

## what is a type 2 (beta) error?

###
alternative hypothesis is true in reality

the null hypothesis is true in research

10

## what is a P-value and what value is statistically significant?

###
states how unlikely it is that the result occurred simply by chance if the null hypothesis is true

<0.05

11

## what is the formula for RR (relative risk)?

### (risk of treatment group)/ (risk of non-treatment group)= RR

12

## what is the formula for ARR (absolute risk reduction)?

### (risk of non-treatment group)- (risk of treatment group)= ARR

13

## what is the formula for RRR (relative risk reduction)?

### ARR/ (risk of non-treatment group)= RRR

14

## what is the formula for NNT (number needed to treat)?

###
100/ARR= NNT

15

## What is the formula for Odds Ratio?

###
(procedure 1 outcome 1/ procedure 1 outcome 2) (procedure 2 outcome 1/ procedure 2 outcome 2)

*1= no statistical difference b/w groups

16

## Correlation does NOT EQUAL __________

### Causation

17

## What is correlation?

### the magnitude of the relationship b/w different variables

18