Flashcards in Summary 3 Deck (25):
North branch of Germanic:
Old Norse > Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Faroese
East branch of Germanic:
Gothic †, Burgundian†, Langobardic†, Vandalic†
West branch of Germanic:
High German, Low German (< Old Saxon), Dutch, Flemish, Frisian, English
what formed the boundary between the Germanic tribes and the Roman Empire?
The Upper Rhine and the Danube rivers
when did it split into present-day France and Germany?
The language of the Franks did not survive in France, but they gave their name to the :
country, the currency and the language.
Carolingian Empire was?
The Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and others settled in the :
The Vikings (Danes and Norwegians) settled in the :
The Normans (originally Vikings who had settled in Northern France) invaded :
Names for some days of the week from :
Germanic god(esse)s: Tiw (Tuesday), Wodan (Wednesday), Thor (Thursday), Freia (Friday)
Borrowed metallurgical words from the :
Borrowed a number of words from Latin for new concepts like:
roads, buildings, currency, foods
The gender designations (masculine, feminine, neuter) were :
an invention of Greek grammarians,
who happened to notice that male beings often occurred in Group1 and female beings in
Two sets of endings for:
adjectives (strong and weak)
Q: Why don’t modal verbs have an –s in the third person singular present tense?
A: They came from past tense forms, which never had an –s ending.
There are no written records of Germanic, but based on its use in inscriptions in several Germanic
languages, it is likely that Germanic used (invented) the :
the fuþork (the Runic alphabet).
- The earliest written record :
a Gothic translation of the Bible in the fourth century AD, using Bishop
Wulfila’s adaptation of the Greek alphabet.
Word stress was ______ in Indo-European.
In Germanic, word stress became:
fixed on the first or root syllable of the word.
who was Sir William Jones?
a British judge in India, presented evidence which showed a strong connection among Sanskrit (an ancient language of India) and many languages spoken in Europe
what is considered the birth of linguistics as a (systematic scientific) discipline. ?
during which period did grimm's law occur?
during the Romantic period
contributor to Grimm's law?