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History Of English, Midterm > Summary 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Summary 3 Deck (25):
1

North branch of Germanic:

Old Norse > Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Faroese

2

East branch of Germanic:

Gothic †, Burgundian†, Langobardic†, Vandalic†

3

West branch of Germanic:

High German, Low German (< Old Saxon), Dutch, Flemish, Frisian, English

4

what formed the boundary between the Germanic tribes and the Roman Empire?

The Upper Rhine and the Danube rivers

5

when did it split into present-day France and Germany?

in 843

6

The language of the Franks did not survive in France, but they gave their name to the :

country, the currency and the language.

7

Carolingian Empire was?

Charlemagne

8

The Angles, Saxons, Jutes, and others settled in the :

British Isles.

9

The Vikings (Danes and Norwegians) settled in the :

East Midlands.

10

The Normans (originally Vikings who had settled in Northern France) invaded :

England

11

Names for some days of the week from :

Germanic god(esse)s: Tiw (Tuesday), Wodan (Wednesday), Thor (Thursday), Freia (Friday)

12

Borrowed metallurgical words from the :

Celts

13

Borrowed a number of words from Latin for new concepts like:

roads, buildings, currency, foods

14

The gender designations (masculine, feminine, neuter) were :

an invention of Greek grammarians,
who happened to notice that male beings often occurred in Group1 and female beings in
Group 2.

15

Two sets of endings for:

adjectives (strong and weak)

16

Q: Why don’t modal verbs have an –s in the third person singular present tense?

A: They came from past tense forms, which never had an –s ending.

17

There are no written records of Germanic, but based on its use in inscriptions in several Germanic
languages, it is likely that Germanic used (invented) the :

the fuþork (the Runic alphabet).

18

- The earliest written record :

a Gothic translation of the Bible in the fourth century AD, using Bishop
Wulfila’s adaptation of the Greek alphabet.

19

Word stress was ______ in Indo-European.

variable

20

In Germanic, word stress became:

fixed on the first or root syllable of the word.

21

who was Sir William Jones?

a British judge in India, presented evidence which showed a strong connection among Sanskrit (an ancient language of India) and many languages spoken in Europe

22

what is considered the birth of linguistics as a (systematic scientific) discipline. ?

Grimm's law

23

during which period did grimm's law occur?

during the Romantic period

24

contributor to Grimm's law?

jacob grimm

25

the shifting of several series of consonant groups:

1. Indo-European voiceless stops became voiceless fricatives in Germanic.
2. Voiced stops became voiceless stops.