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Flashcards in Summer Flashcards Deck (93)
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Alliteration

The same sound at the beginning or end of consecutive words

1

Allusion

An indirect reference

2

Analogy

An extended comparison between two seemingly dissimilar things

3

Anaphora

Repetition of words at the begining of successive clauses

4

Anecdote

A short account of an interesting event

5

Antimetabole

Repetition of words in inverted order to sharpen a contrast

6

Antithesis

Parallel structure that juxtaposes contrasting ideas

7

Aphorism

A short, astute statement of a general truth.

8

Appositive

A word or phrase that renames a nearby noun or pronoun.

9

Archaic Dictation

The use of words common to an earlier time period; antiquated language.

10

Argument

A statement put forth and supported by language

11

Aristotelian Triangle

A diagram that represents a rhetorical situation as the relationship between the speaker, subject, and audience (see rhetorical triangle)

12

Assertion

An emphatic statement; declaration. An assertion supported by evidence becomes an arguement

13

Assumption

A belief or statement without proof

14

Asyndeton

Leaving out conjunctions

15

Attitude

Speaker's position on subject as revealed through tone

16

Audience

Listener or reader

17

Authority

Reliable, respected source

18

Bias

Prejudice or predisposition

19

Cite

Identifying a piece of writing as being derived from a source.

20

Claim

Assertion usually supported by evidence

21

Close Reading

A careful reading that is attentive to the literary and structural elements of a text

22

Colloquial/ism

Informal or conversational use of language

23

Common Ground

Shared beliefs, values, or positions

25

Complex Sentence

Sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause

26

Concession

A reluctant knowledge or yielding

27

Connotation

That which is implied by a word, as opposed to the word’s literal
meaning (see denotation)

28

Context

Words, events, or circumstances that help determine meaning.

29

Coordination

Grammatical equivalence between parts of a sentence, often
through a coordinating conjunction such as and, or but.

30

Counterargument

A challenge to a position; an opposing argument

31

Cumulative Sentence

An independent clause followed by subordinate clauses or
phrases that supply additional detail

32

Declarative Sentence

A sentence that makes a statement.

33

Deductive

Reasoning from general to specific.

34

Denotation

The literal meaning of a word; its dictionary definition.

35

Diction

Word choice

36

Documentation

Bibliographic information about the sources used in a piece of
writing.

37

Elegiac

Mournful over what has passed or been lost; often used to describe tone.

38

Epigram

A brief witty statement.

39

Ethos

A Greek term referring to the character of a person; one of Aristotle’s
three rhetorical appeals (see logos and pathos).

40

Figurative Language

The use of tropes or figures of speech; going beyond literal
meaning to achieve literary effect.

41

Figure of Speech

An expression that strives for literary effect rather than conveying
a literal meaning.

42

Hyperbole

Exaggeration for the purpose of emphasis.

43

Imagery

Vivid use of language that evokes a reader’s senses (sight, smell, taste,
touch, hearing).

44

Imperative Sentence

A sentence that requests or commands.

45

Induction

Reasoning from specific to general.

46

Inversion

A sentence in which the verb precedes the subject.

47

Irony

A contradiction between what is said and what is meant; incongruity between
action and result.

48

Juxtaposition

Placement of two things side by side for emphasis.

49

Logos

A Greek term that means “word”; an appeal to logic; one of Aristotle’s
three rhetorical appeals (see ethos and pathos)

50

Metaphor

A figure of speech or trope through which one thing is spoken of as
though it were something else, thus making an implicit comparison.

51

Metonymy

Use of an aspect of something to represent the whole.

52

Occasion

An aspect of context; the cause or reason for writing.

53

Oxymoron

A figure of speech that combines two contradictory terms.

54

Paradox

A statement that seems contradictory but is actually true

55

Parallelism

The repetition of similar grammatical or syntactical patterns.

56

Parody

A piece that imitates and exaggerates the prominent features of another;
used for comic effect or ridicule.

57

Pathos

A Greek term that refers to suffering but has come to be associated with
broader appeals to emotion; one of Aristotle’s three rhetorical appeals (see
ethos and logos).

58

Persona

The speaker, voice, or character assumed by the author of a piece of
writing.

59

Personification

Assigning lifelike characteristics to inanimate objects.

60

Polemic

An argument against an idea, usually regarding philosophy, politics, or
religion.

61

Polysyndeton

The deliberate use of a series of conjunctions.

62

Premise

Two parts of a syllogism. The concluding sentence of a
syllogism takes its predicate from the major premise and its subject from the
minor premise.
Major premise: All mammals are warm-blooded.
Minor premise: All horses are mammals
Conclusion: All horses are warm-blooded (see syllogism).

63

Propaganda

A negative term for writing designed to sway opinion rather than
present information.

64

Purpose

One’s intention or objective in a speech or piece of writing.

65

Refute

To discredit an argument, particularly a counterargument

66

Retoric

The study of effective, persuasive language use; according to Aristotle,
use of the “available means of persuasion.”

67

Rhetorical Modes

Patterns of organization developed to achieve a specific purpose;
modes include but are not limited to narration, description, comparison
and contrast, cause and effect, definition, exemplification, classification and
division, process analysis, and argumentation.

68

Rhetorical Question

A question asked more to produce an effect than to summon
an answer.

69

Rhetorical Triangle

A diagram that represents a rhetorical situation as the relationship
among the speaker, the subject, and the audience (see Aristotelian
triangle

70

Satire

An ironic, sarcastic, or witty composition that claims to argue for something,
but actually argues against it.

71

Scheme

A pattern of words or sentence construction used for rhetorical effect.

72

Sentence Pattern

The arrangement of independent and dependent clauses
into known sentence constructions—such as simple, compound, complex, or
compound-complex.

73

Sentence Variety

Using a variety of sentence patterns to create a desired effect

74

Simile

A figure of speech that uses “like” or “as” to compare two things.

75

Simple Sentence

A statement containing a subject and predicate; an independent
clause

76

Source

A book, article, person, or other resource consulted for information.

77

Speaker

A term used for the author, speaker, or the person whose perspective
(real or imagined) is being advanced in a speech or piece of writing.

78

Straw Man

A logical fallacy that involves the creation of an easily refutable position;
misrepresenting, then attacking an opponent’s position

79

Style

The distinctive qualitiy of speech or writing created by the selection and
arrangement of words and figures of speech.

80

Subject

In rhetoric, the topic addressed in a piece of writing.

81

Subordinate Clause

Created by a subordinating conjunction, a clause that modifies
an independent clause.

82

Subordination

The dependence of one syntactical element on another in a sentence.

83

Syllogism

A form of deductive reasoning in which the conclusion is supported
by a major and minor premise (see premise; major, and minor).

84

Syntax

Sentence Structure

85

Synthesize

Combining or bringing together two or more elements to produce
something more complex.

86

Thesis

The central idea in a work to which all parts of the work refer.

87

Thesis Statement

A statement of the central idea in a work, may be explicit or
implicit.

88

Tone

The speaker’s attitude toward the subject or audience.

89

Topic Sentence

A sentence, most often appearing at the beginning of a paragraph,
that announces the paragraph’s idea and often unites it with the work’s
thesis

90

Trope

Artful diction; the use of language in a nonliteral way; also called a figure
of speech.

91

Understatement

Lack of emphasis in a statement or point; restraint in language
often used for ironic effect.

92

Voice

In grammar, a term for the relationship between a verb and a noun (active
or passive voice). In rhetoric, a distinctive quality in the style and tone of
writing.

93

Zeugma

A construction in which one word (usually a verb) modifies or
governs—often in different, sometimes incongruent ways—two or more
words in a sentence.