Flashcards in Summer Flashcards Deck (93)
The same sound at the beginning or end of consecutive words
An indirect reference
An extended comparison between two seemingly dissimilar things
Repetition of words at the begining of successive clauses
A short account of an interesting event
Repetition of words in inverted order to sharpen a contrast
Parallel structure that juxtaposes contrasting ideas
A short, astute statement of a general truth.
A word or phrase that renames a nearby noun or pronoun.
The use of words common to an earlier time period; antiquated language.
A statement put forth and supported by language
A diagram that represents a rhetorical situation as the relationship between the speaker, subject, and audience (see rhetorical triangle)
An emphatic statement; declaration. An assertion supported by evidence becomes an arguement
A belief or statement without proof
Leaving out conjunctions
Speaker's position on subject as revealed through tone
Listener or reader
Reliable, respected source
Prejudice or predisposition
Identifying a piece of writing as being derived from a source.
Assertion usually supported by evidence
A careful reading that is attentive to the literary and structural elements of a text
Informal or conversational use of language
Shared beliefs, values, or positions
Sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause
A reluctant knowledge or yielding
That which is implied by a word, as opposed to the word’s literal
meaning (see denotation)
Words, events, or circumstances that help determine meaning.
Grammatical equivalence between parts of a sentence, often
through a coordinating conjunction such as and, or but.
A challenge to a position; an opposing argument
An independent clause followed by subordinate clauses or
phrases that supply additional detail
A sentence that makes a statement.
Reasoning from general to specific.
The literal meaning of a word; its dictionary definition.
Bibliographic information about the sources used in a piece of
Mournful over what has passed or been lost; often used to describe tone.
A brief witty statement.
A Greek term referring to the character of a person; one of Aristotle’s
three rhetorical appeals (see logos and pathos).
The use of tropes or figures of speech; going beyond literal
meaning to achieve literary effect.
Figure of Speech
An expression that strives for literary effect rather than conveying
a literal meaning.
Exaggeration for the purpose of emphasis.
Vivid use of language that evokes a reader’s senses (sight, smell, taste,
A sentence that requests or commands.
Reasoning from specific to general.
A sentence in which the verb precedes the subject.
A contradiction between what is said and what is meant; incongruity between
action and result.
Placement of two things side by side for emphasis.
A Greek term that means “word”; an appeal to logic; one of Aristotle’s
three rhetorical appeals (see ethos and pathos)
A figure of speech or trope through which one thing is spoken of as
though it were something else, thus making an implicit comparison.
Use of an aspect of something to represent the whole.
An aspect of context; the cause or reason for writing.
A figure of speech that combines two contradictory terms.
A statement that seems contradictory but is actually true
The repetition of similar grammatical or syntactical patterns.
A piece that imitates and exaggerates the prominent features of another;
used for comic effect or ridicule.
A Greek term that refers to suffering but has come to be associated with
broader appeals to emotion; one of Aristotle’s three rhetorical appeals (see
ethos and logos).
The speaker, voice, or character assumed by the author of a piece of
Assigning lifelike characteristics to inanimate objects.
An argument against an idea, usually regarding philosophy, politics, or
The deliberate use of a series of conjunctions.
Two parts of a syllogism. The concluding sentence of a
syllogism takes its predicate from the major premise and its subject from the
Major premise: All mammals are warm-blooded.
Minor premise: All horses are mammals
Conclusion: All horses are warm-blooded (see syllogism).
A negative term for writing designed to sway opinion rather than
One’s intention or objective in a speech or piece of writing.
To discredit an argument, particularly a counterargument
The study of effective, persuasive language use; according to Aristotle,
use of the “available means of persuasion.”
Patterns of organization developed to achieve a specific purpose;
modes include but are not limited to narration, description, comparison
and contrast, cause and effect, definition, exemplification, classification and
division, process analysis, and argumentation.
A question asked more to produce an effect than to summon
A diagram that represents a rhetorical situation as the relationship
among the speaker, the subject, and the audience (see Aristotelian
An ironic, sarcastic, or witty composition that claims to argue for something,
but actually argues against it.
A pattern of words or sentence construction used for rhetorical effect.
The arrangement of independent and dependent clauses
into known sentence constructions—such as simple, compound, complex, or
Using a variety of sentence patterns to create a desired effect
A figure of speech that uses “like” or “as” to compare two things.
A statement containing a subject and predicate; an independent
A book, article, person, or other resource consulted for information.
A term used for the author, speaker, or the person whose perspective
(real or imagined) is being advanced in a speech or piece of writing.
A logical fallacy that involves the creation of an easily refutable position;
misrepresenting, then attacking an opponent’s position
The distinctive qualitiy of speech or writing created by the selection and
arrangement of words and figures of speech.
In rhetoric, the topic addressed in a piece of writing.
Created by a subordinating conjunction, a clause that modifies
an independent clause.
The dependence of one syntactical element on another in a sentence.
A form of deductive reasoning in which the conclusion is supported
by a major and minor premise (see premise; major, and minor).
Combining or bringing together two or more elements to produce
something more complex.
The central idea in a work to which all parts of the work refer.
A statement of the central idea in a work, may be explicit or
The speaker’s attitude toward the subject or audience.
A sentence, most often appearing at the beginning of a paragraph,
that announces the paragraph’s idea and often unites it with the work’s
Artful diction; the use of language in a nonliteral way; also called a figure
Lack of emphasis in a statement or point; restraint in language
often used for ironic effect.
In grammar, a term for the relationship between a verb and a noun (active
or passive voice). In rhetoric, a distinctive quality in the style and tone of