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Define the term management.

In modern administrative terminology, management denotes the process of directing and controlling people and things so that organizational objectives can be accomplished.


Distinguish between management and supervision.

Supervision, as part of the management process, refers to the act of overseeing people. It is an activity that takes place at all levels in the organization except at the work level, although many of the tenets of good supervision apply to the nonsupervisory officer in his daily dealings with the public.


What types of institutional knowledge must a supervisor possess.

Knowledge and understanding of the policies, rules, procedures, practices, functions, and objectives of his organization.

Local subdivision of government and should have an understanding of its relationships with other units of government.

Acquainted with those agencies that work in conjunction with his own.

Their facilities for providing rescue work, ambulance services, welfare activities, or other services.

Thoroughly familiar with the local political atmosphere.


What are the basic supervisory responsibilities? Discuss how they affect the supervisor in obtaining the best performance from his subordinates.

Personnel officer
Decision maker


What does the acronym POSDCORB stand for?

Gulick’s concept:



Plans may be classified into several types according to the purposes they serve. What are they according to

- Procedural plans
- Tactical plans
- Operational plans
- Auxiliary plans
- Fiscal plans
- Policies are also a type of plan consisting of a set of broad principles that guide personnel in the accomplishment of general organizational objectives.
- Rules and regulations are plans providing specific guides to conduct and  performance.


What are the types of basic organizational structures

Line organization
Functional organization
Line and staff organization


Define a line organization.

In line organization is a direct line of authority and responsibility from the top to the bottom.


What are the pros and cons of a Direct Line organization?

- Sometimes impractical
- Supervisory personnel are frequently required to do specialty work

- Simple
- Easy to make quick decisions
- Coordination of effort is easy


Define a Functional Organization.

The functional organization divides responsibility and authority among several specialists. Mostly found at top level of organization.


What is a Line and Staff Organization type?

A combination of the line and functional types.


Why are organizational structures established?

Organizational structures are established to designate how work is to be divided among the various components of the establishment.


What is the principle of Unity of Command?

- Every employee be under the direct command of but one superior.

- The principle of unity of command applies to those who are commanded, not to those who command.


What is Span of Control principle?

Relates to the number of subordinates who can be supervised effectively by one supervisor.


What is the Delegation principle?

Relates to the process of committing an activity to another’s care.


What causes Delegation Failures?

When the supervisor allows his subordinates to delegate upward more quickly than he learns to delegate downward.


In addition to delegating a task, what else must be delegated to make the Delegation Process successful?

When a task is delegated to an employee who is competent to perform it, enough authority to complete it must also be delegated, but the process must be consistent.


What are some other commonly used terms for Personnel Development by Delegation?

- “executive” or
- “supervisory development” or simply
- “personnel development"


What is the Exception Principle?

- Specifies that the head of an organization or unit within it should not find it necessary to act personally on each matter coming under his general jurisdiction. Rather, he should have to act only on those exceptional matters that require his personal attention.

- The exception principle is inseparable from the principle of delegation.


What is the principle of Delegation of Staff Projects?

The principle of completed staff projects requires that the person to whom work has been assigned through the delegation process complete it so that the only thing left to be done by the person who delegated it is to approve it.


What are the pros and cons of a Functional organization?

- Difficult to coordinate efforts
- Discipline is difficult to administer because of this multiheaded leadership.
- Lines of authority and responsibility are fragmented
- Incompatible databases and politics are among the most glaring difficulties faced by task forces.

- Task forces with specific assignments have been very successful.


What is the Law of Productivity?

For best results, the principle of specialization and the law of productivity, as stated by Leon Alford, require assigning to each worker the fewest possible kinds of tasks or operations in order to improve the quality and increase the quantity of his work and giving him the highest class of work for which his natural abilities fit him. Only then is the greatest individual productivity possible.


What are the three broad areas of a supervisor’s job ?

Leading, directing, and controlling individuals and groups that are formally or informally arranged.