Supreme Court Cases and Amendments Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Supreme Court Cases and Amendments Deck (41):
1

Judicial Review

Gave the supreme court the power to decide if a law is or is not constitutional (Marbury v Madison).

2

Judicial Activism

The court is very active in reviewing past decisions and inserting itself to change decisions. For example, Brown v. Board of Education

3

Bill of Rights

The first 10 constitutional amendments that guaranteed certain rights to American citizens in all circumstances.
It was supported by the anti-federalists to ensure protection against individual rights.

4

1st Amendment

Freedom of speech including religion, press, and assembly (Zenger Case)

5

2nd Amendment

Right to bear arms

6

3rd Amendment

Prohibits quartering of troops

7

5th Amendment

Prohibits self-incrimination

8

7th Amendment

Right to jury trial for civil cases

9

8th Amendment

Prohibits cruel/unusual punishment

10

12th Amendment

Sets procedure by which the president and vice president are elected.
It established the electoral college.

11

13th Amendment

Abolition of slavery

12

14th Amendment

Citizenship to former slaves. Equaled the protection clause

13

15th Amendment

Universal suffrage to all men

14

16th Amendment

Income tax

15

17th Amendment

Direct election of US senators.
It was imparted under Teddy Roosevelt and allowed the people to pick their senators, rather than the house of representatives.

16

18th Amendment

Prohibition.
Tried to decrease crime, but rather increased crime due to illegal consumption or manufacturing of alcohol.

17

19th Amendment

Women's suffrage

18

20th Amendment

"lame duck"
It is the president that is about to go out of office. It also changed the dates to January, instead of the previous March.

19

21st Amendment

Repealed the 18th amendment (prohibition)

20

22nd Amendment

2-term limit
(FDR served for 4 terms before he died)

21

26th Amendment

Voting age at 18

22

John Marshall

Established the supreme court as a powerful branch with the right to declare "unconstitutional". Allowed the power to the government stronger.

23

Marbury v Madison (1803)

Established judicial review.
It gave the supreme court the most power.

24

McCulloch v Maryland (1819).

Confirmed constitutionality of the Bank of the United States

25

Dartmouth College v Woodward (1819)

power to regulate contracts

26

Gibbons v Ogden (1824)

Power to regulate interstate commerce

27

Worcester v Georgia (1833)

It established tribal anatomy within their own boundaries.
The Cherokees, mainly in Georgia, owned land where foreigners found gold and attempted to push all the natives out. Supreme courted ruled it as illegal.

28

Scott v Sandford (1857)

"Dred Scott Decision;" Slaves are not citizens, but was turned down by the 14th Amendment.
Dred scott was a slave who traveled to a free state with his owner, and they argued that since it was a free state, they could state.

29

Plessy v Ferguson (1896)

Established "separate by equal"
It was later overturned in 1954 with Brown v Board of Education

30

Korematsu v US (1941)

Legalized detention camps for Japanese- Americans during world war II.
Fred K was a Japanese America brisking the situation of the interment camps. He lost and the internment camps were legalized. FDR enacted the executive order of 9066 led to the internment camps.

31

Ex Parte Endo (1944)

Reversed the Korematsu v Unterest.

32

Warren Court (1953-1969)

Earl Warren and his court upheld civil rights found in the Bill of RIghts

33

Brown v Board of Educations (1954)

Declared "separate by equal" segregation in public school unconstitutional.
It reversed Plessy v Ferguson.

34

Gideon v Wainwright (1960s)

Right to legal counsel. No matter the money or crime, everyone is guaranteed a lawyer.

35

Miranda v Arizona (1960s)

Miranda Rights. It guaranteed everyone know their rights before being detained.

36

Griswold v Connecticut (1960s)

Gave married couples right to birth control and privacy

37

Roe v Wade (1973)

Right to abortion

38

Munn v Illinois (1877)

Upheld state granger laws that regulated railroads.
Granger laws was a populist form that united workers who tried to shape their agricultural goods and were charged higher rates than manufacturer shipping their manufactured goods do.

39

Northern Securities (1904)

Government has the right to fight monopolies.
It was under Teddy Roosevelt.

40

Schenck v US (1919)

1st Amendment can be restricted if speech presents "clear and present danger"
This came after the first red scare and the the United States was recoiling to isolationism again.

41

Schechter v US (1936)

Declared the NRA unconstitutional.
It was viewed as expanding the government's power too much.