Surface Anatomy and Coronary Vessels Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Surface Anatomy and Coronary Vessels Deck (39):
1

What is the function of the fibrous part of the pericardial sac?

Holds the heart in place

2

What is the outer layer of the pericardial sac?

Parietal layer

3

What is the inner layer of the pericardial sac?

Serous layer

4

What nerve roots innervate the phrenic nerves?

C3, C4 & C5

5

What is the function of the phrenic nerves?

- Provide motor and sensory innervation to the diaphragm
- Provide sensory innervation to the pericardium

6

Describe the path of phrenic nerves to the heart

- Nerves descend anterior to the lungs
- Right nerve descends over the right atrium
- Left nerve descends over the left atrium

7

What structure is fused with the inferior pericardial surface?

The diaphragm

8

What forms the left border of the heart?

The left ventricle

9

What forms the right border of the heart?

Right atrium

10

What forms the inferior border of the heart?

Right ventricle

11

What forms the anterior surface of the heart?

Right atrium and ventricle

12

What forms the posterior surface of the heart?

Left atrium and ventricle

13

Where do the coronary arteries arise from?

The left and right aortic sinuses

14

What does the right coronary artery supply?

Right atrium, SAN, AVN, posterior part of the interventricular septum

15

What is the path of the right coronary artery?

- Travels in the right atrioventricular groove posteriorly between the right atrium and ventricle
- Gives off 2 branches before continuing around to the posterior aspect of the heart
- Moves through the groove until it reaches the crux where it gives off another branch
- May give off a further branch
- Continues for a short distance along the posterior atrioventricular groove before terminating

16

What is the path of the sinuatrial branch of the RCA?

- Arises from the RCA as it passes through the right AV groove
- Travels towards the SA node where it terminates

17

What does the sinuatrial branch of the RCA supply?

The SA node

18

What is the path of the right marginal branch of the RCA?

- Originates from the RCA distal to the sinuatrial branch
- Moves down towards the apex of the heart
- Terminates before reaching the apex

19

What does the right marginal branch of the RCA supply?

Right border of the heart

20

What is the path of the atrioventricular nodal branch of the RCA?

- Originates from the RCA at the crux of the heart
- Moves to the AVN where it terminates

21

What does the atrioventricular branch of the RCA supply?

AV node

22

What is the path of the posterior interventricular branch of the RCA?

- Originates from the RCA distally to the AV nodal branch
- Descends between the ventricles
- Sends perforating interventricular septal branches into the interventricular septum

23

What does the posterior interventricular branch of the RCA supply?

Interventricular septum

24

What does the left coronary artery supply?

Most of the left atrium and ventricle, IVS and AV bundles, may supply the AVN

25

What is the path of the left coronary artery?

- Runs through the left atrioventricular groove and splits into 2 branches
- One branch runs in the anterior IV groove to the apex of the heart
- Second branch continues in the AV groove to the posterior surface and usually terminates in the posterior AV groove

26

What is the path of the left anterior descending artery?

- Originates from the LCA as the inferior branch
- Runs in the anterior IV groove to the apex of the heart
- Gives off interventricular septal branches
- Usually gives off another branch to the anterior surface if the heart
- Goes around the inferior border of the heart and usually anastomoses with the posterior interventricular artery

27

What does the LAD artery supply?

Adjacent parts of both ventricles

28

What is the path of the diagonal branch of the LAD artery?

- Originates from the LAD artery
- Descends the anterior surface of the heart
- Terminates on the anterior surface

29

What is the path of the circumflex branch of the LCA?

- Originates from the LCA and follows the AV groove to the posterior surface of the heart
- Gives off branch to the left margin of the heart
- Usually terminates in the AV groove but may continue to the posterior IV groove
- May give off a branch to the SA node

30

What does the left marginal branch of the LCA supply?

Left ventricle

31

What is the path of the left marginal branch of the LCA?

- Originates from the circumflex branch
- Runs down the left margin of the heart

32

What is the coronary sinus?

Main vein of the heart

33

What is the path of the coronary sinus?

Runs from left to right in the posterior part of the AV groove

34

What is the great cardiac vein?

Main tributary of the coronary sinus

35

What is the path of the great cardiac vein?

- Anterior IV vein originates at the apex and ascends with the anterior IV branch of the LCA
- Turns left at the AV groove and moves with the circumflex branch of the LCA to the coronary sinus

36

What is the path of the middle cardiac vein?

Accompanies the posterior IV branch of the RCA

37

What is the path of the small cardiac vein?

Accompanies the right marginal branch of the RCA

38

What is the path of the anterior cardiac veins?

- Originate at the anterior surface of the right ventricle
- Cross over the AV groove
- Usually terminate directly into the right atrium

39

What attaches the pericardial sac to the sternum?

Sternopericardial ligament