Surgical Pathology Flashcards Preview

Biomechanics & Surgery Exam 3 > Surgical Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Surgical Pathology Deck (19):

what is considered the routine and is the most widely used procedure to examine specimens?

paraffin embedding method
*this is most accurate and conclusive


which method is used intra-operatively to examine specimens?

frozen section


which method is exfoliative and uses fine needle aspiration to examine specimens?

cytological diagnosis


what are the general rules for biopsy?

-avoid necrosis and hemorrhage areas
-the larger the lesion, the more numerous biopsies you need
-for ulcerated tumor, peripheral biopsy is suggested
-all fragments should be collected
-do not squeeze, crush, or do cautery
-fix in fixatives ASAP if it is for paraffin sectioning
-orienting specimen (e.g. deep/ superior/inferior margins)


what kind of container should you get for your specimen?

-size should be corresponding to specimen volume
-lid for leak-proof
-wide mouth, flat bottom


how much fixative: specimen volume ratio should you use?

10x volume of fixative over the specimen volume


what is the penetration rate of fixative solution?

1mm/ hr


what is in the neutral buffered formalin solution?

100mL of formalin
900 mL of distilled water
(this makes a final volume of 1000mL) and is a 10x dilution


what % of formalin is found in a 1000 mL volume of neutral buffered formalin?



what is the best fixative solution?

10% formalin


what are the advantages of formalin?

-satisfactory penetration into tissue
-little shrinkage
-very economic
-preserves color of tissue
-preserve fat & RBC well
-satisfactory hardening
-special stains can be used on tissues after fixation


what are the disadvantages of formalin?

-needs to be changed every 3-6 months
-cannot preserve glycogen


what are the procedures for paraffin sectioning?

1. fixation- w/ formalin
2. dehydration
3. clearing
4. paraffin impregnation
5. embedding
6. sectioning
7. attachment
8. dewax
9. staining
10. mounting


in an H&E staining, what appears blue? what appears pink-red?

blue (basophilic)- nucleus
red (acidophilic)- cytoplasm


what are the indications for frozen section?

-benign or malignant lesions
-metastatic lymph node
-adequacy of surgical margins
-presence/absence of ganglion cells in large intestinal wall of Hirschsprung disease


what can you conclude in terms of a diagnosis from a frozen section?

NOT a specific diagnosis (cannot definitely say benign vs. malignant)


what can you conclude in terms of a diagnosis from a frozen section?

NOT a specific diagnosis (cannot definitely say benign vs. malignant)


what kinds of specimens should be collected for frozen section?

-must be fresh tissues
-small size of tissue (


what are inappropriate specimens for frozen section?

-thyroid tissue
-large specimens
-highly infectious specimens: HIV, TB, hepatitis