How can an alcohol be converted to an alkene?
Conc. H2SO4 (dehydrating agent)
How can an alkene be converted to an alcohol?
Add water with a H2SO4 catalyst
How can an alcohol be converted to a ketone?
How can a ketone be converted to an alcohol?
React with NaBH4
How can an alcohol be converted to an aldehyde?
How can an aldehyde be converted to an alcohol?
React with NaBH4
How can an aldehyde/ketone be converted to a hydroxynitrile?
React with KCN and dilute HCl
How can a nitrile group be converted to a carboxylic acid group?
Water and dilute HCl
How can an alkene be converted to an alkane?
How can alkenes be produced from alkanes?
How can haloalkanes be made from alkanes?
How can an alkene be converted to a haloalkane?
How can an alkene be formed from a haloalkane?
How can a haloalkane be converted to an amine?
How can a haloalkane be converted to a nitrile?
How can a nitrile be converted to an amine?
How are esters formed?
Alcohol + carboxylic acid
(Conc.) H2SO4 catalyst
How are esters hydrolysed?
How can an aldehyde be converted into a carboxylic acid?
How can a carboxylic acid be converted into an alcohol?
React with LiAlH4
In dry ethoxyethane
How can an acyl chloride/acid anyhydride be converted to an amide?
How can an acyl chloride/acid anyhydride be converted to an ester?
How can an acyl chloride/acid anyhydride be converted to a carboxylic acid?
How can a haloalkane be converted to an alcohol?
How can benzene be converted to a phenylketone or phenyl aldehyde?
RCOCl + AlCl3
How can benzene be converted to nitrobenzene?
How can nitrobenzene be converted to a phenyl amine?
Tin + HCl
React with NaOH
How do NaBH4 and LiAlH4 act as reducing agents?
Provide hydride (H-) ions
H+ ions are provided by the solvent
Which bond(s) do NaBH4 and LiAlH4 not reduce?
What are the four stages in the synthesis of chloroalkanes?
When reacting a haloalkane with ammonia how can the yield of the following be increased:
- Primary amine
- Quaternary ammonium salt
- Excess ammonia
- Excess haloalkane
What are the advantages of using an acid anhydride over an acyl chloride?
- Less corrosive
- Less vulnerable to hydrolysis
- Less vigorous reaction (more controllable)
- Does not produce toxic/corrosive fumes (HCl)
- Less volatile
What is the advantage of using an acyl chloride over an acid anhydride?