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Flashcards in Synthetic Routes Deck (33):
1

How can an alcohol be converted to an alkene?

Conc. H2SO4 (dehydrating agent)

Reflux

(Dehydration reaction)

2

How can an alkene be converted to an alcohol?

Add water with a H2SO4 catalyst

3

How can an alcohol be converted to a ketone?

K2Cr2O7/H2SO4

Reflux

4

How can a ketone be converted to an alcohol?

React with NaBH4

In methanol

5

How can an alcohol be converted to an aldehyde?

K2Cr2O7/H2SO4

Distillation

6

How can an aldehyde be converted to an alcohol?

React with NaBH4

In methanol

7

How can an aldehyde/ketone be converted to a hydroxynitrile?

React with KCN and dilute HCl

8

How can a nitrile group be converted to a carboxylic acid group?

Water and dilute HCl

Reflux

9

How can an alkene be converted to an alkane?

H2/Ni

200°C

High pressure

10

How can alkenes be produced from alkanes?

High temperature

High pressure

(Thermal cracking)

11

How can haloalkanes be made from alkanes?

X2

UV light

(Free radical-substitution)

12

How can an alkene be converted to a haloalkane?

HX/X2

13

How can an alkene be formed from a haloalkane?

NaOH

Ethanolic

Reflux

14

How can a haloalkane be converted to an amine?

NH3

Heat

15

How can a haloalkane be converted to a nitrile?

KCN

Reflux

Aqueous/ethanolic

16

How can a nitrile be converted to an amine?

H2/Ni

200°C

High pressure

17

How are esters formed?

Alcohol + carboxylic acid

(Conc.) H2SO4 catalyst

Heated

18

How are esters hydrolysed?

NaOH

Reflux

OR

H2O

(dil.) H2SO4

Reflux

19

How can an aldehyde be converted into a carboxylic acid?

K2Cr2O7/H2SO4

Reflux

20

How can a carboxylic acid be converted into an alcohol?

React with LiAlH4

In dry ethoxyethane

21

How can an acyl chloride/acid anyhydride be converted to an amide?

NH3

Room temperature

22

How can an acyl chloride/acid anyhydride be converted to an ester?

Alcohol

Room temperature

23

How can an acyl chloride/acid anyhydride be converted to a carboxylic acid?

H2O

Room Temperature

24

How can a haloalkane be converted to an alcohol?

NaOH

Aqueous

Heat

Reflux

25

How can benzene be converted to a phenylketone or phenyl aldehyde?

RCOCl + AlCl3

Reflux

Non aqueous

(Friedel-Crafts acylation)

26

How can benzene be converted to nitrobenzene?

Concentrated HNO3

Concentrated H2SO4

27

How can nitrobenzene be converted to a phenyl amine?

Tin + HCl

Reflux

Then

React with NaOH

28

How do NaBH4 and LiAlH4 act as reducing agents?

Provide hydride (H-) ions

H+ ions are provided by the solvent

29

Which bond(s) do NaBH4 and LiAlH4 not reduce?

NaBH4:

  • COOH
  • CN

Both:

  • C=C

30

What are the four stages in the synthesis of chloroalkanes?

  1. Initiation
  2. Propagation 1
  3. Propagation 2
  4. Termination

31

When reacting a haloalkane with ammonia how can the yield of the following be increased:

  1. Primary amine
  2. Quaternary ammonium salt

  1. Excess ammonia
  2. Excess haloalkane

32

What are the advantages of using an acid anhydride over an acyl chloride?

  1. Less corrosive
  2. Less vulnerable to hydrolysis
  3. Less vigorous reaction (more controllable)
  4. Does not produce toxic/corrosive fumes (HCl)
  5. Less volatile

33

What is the advantage of using an acyl chloride over an acid anhydride?

More reactive