Flashcards in Systems Working Together Deck (19):
Cellular respiration: the chemical reaction involving oxygen that moves the energy in glucose into the compound ATP. The body is able to use the energy contained in ATP.
Glucose: a simple carbohydrate and the simplest form of sugar
a gas in the air produced by respiration and used by plants as part of photosynthesis. The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide.
Respiratory system: the body system involving the lungs and associated structures, which take in air and supply the blood with oxygen to deliver to the body’s cells so they can carry out their essential functions; it also performs gas exchange to remove the waste gas carbon dioxide
Oxygen: a gas in the air (and water) that animals need to breathe; made up of particles with two oxygen atoms. Plants produce oxygen as part of photosynthesis.
Trachea: narrow tube from the mouth to the lungs through which air moves
Bronchi: the narrow tubes through which air passes from the trachea to the smaller bronchioles and alveoli in the respiratory system. Singular = bronchus.
Bronchioles: small branching tubes in the lungs leading from the two larger bronchi to the alveoli
Alveoli: tiny air sacs in the lungs at the ends of the narrowest tubes. Oxygen moves from alveoli into the surrounding blood vessels, in exchange for carbon dioxide.
Carbohydrates: organic substances, such as sugars and starch, that are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and contain useful chemical energy
Lipids: type of nutrient that includes fats and oils
Proteins: chemical made up of amino acids needed for the growth and repair of the cells in living things
Vitamins: organic nutrients required in small amounts. They include vitamins A, B, C, D and K.
Minerals: any of the inorganic elements that are essential to the functioning of the human body and are obtained from foods
Endocrine system: the body system of glands that produce and secrete hormones into the bloodstream in order to regulate processes in various organs
Nervous system: the system of nerves and nerve centres in an animal in which messages are sent as an electrical and then a chemical impulse. It comprises the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
Vitamin deficiency disease
A disease caused by not eating enough vitamins
Dehydrated: state in which too much water has been lost from the body