Flashcards in Tasos CNS and Eye infections Deck (47)
What are the symptoms of conjunctivitis?
- Redness of eye
- Watering of eye
- Yellow sticky coating on eyelashes
What are the most common organisms that causes infective conjunctivitis?
- Staphylococcus aureus
- haemophilus influenzae
- Streptococcus pneumoniae
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What are the main modes of conjunctivitis transmission?
- Discharge from the conjunctivae or upper respiratory tract of infected persons (e.g droplets from coughing and sneezing): Primary transmittance
- Contaminated objects
- Infected mothers during vaginal delivery
What occurs in Ophthalmia neonatorum (neonatal jaundice)?
- Contracted during delivery by an infant whose mother is infected with gonorrhoea or chlamydia
- Can cause blindness if not promptly treated
- Usually appears 1 to 2 days post delivery
What is keratitis?
Inflammation or irritation of the cornea
- Characterised by cloudiness
- Infections generally occur after the cornea has been injured, allowing bacteria to enter
- Deeper the infection, more severe its symptoms and complications
What causes keratitis?
- Improper care or cleaning of contacts
- contaminated eye make up (usually aggressive infections, characterised by waking up with eyelids stuck together)
What is Acanthamoeba and what does it cause?
Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba
Found in bodies of water, soil and air
- Causes Acanthamoeba keratitis
What is Acanthamoeba keratitis and what are the symptoms?
- Infection of the cornea
- Can cause permanent visual impairment or blindness
> Blurred vision
> Excessive tearing
What are some risks of infection of Acanthamoeba keratitis?
- Storing and handling lenses improperly
> Disinfecting lenses improperly
> Swimming, showering while wearing contacts
> Contact with contaminated water
> History of cornea trauma
What is Endophthalmitis? What is the most common type?
- Intraocular infection
- Most common type is post-operative endophthalmitis
- This condition is common after cataract surgery (1 in every 1000 patients)
- Around 3 to 12 days post op
Next questions concern periocular diseases (around the eye)
What is Blepharitis?
Refers to chronic inflammation of the eyelids
- Symptoms are normal eye conditions symptoms (redness, tearing, itching, photophobia etc) plus sandy, gritty sensation
What are the 3 forms of blepharitis?
3) Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD)
What occurs in Staphylococcal Blepharitis?
- Edge of eye becomes inflamed
- Ulcers may form because of secondary infection
What occurs in Seborrheic blepharitis?
- Redness of the lids
- Scales and flaking of eyelashes
- Often associated with dandruff of scalp
What occurs in Meibomian gland dysfunction blepharitis?
- Produces lipid like secretions that coat the tear layer to prevent evaporation
- Defects cause tears to evaporate more quickly
- Gland dysfunction due to clogging of oil