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Flashcards in Terminology Deck (68):
1

Macule

a small flat lesion with a change in color but no elevation, depression, or change in texture. It has a discernable border with the normal skin surrounding it. Descriptors include the sharpness of borders (sharply vs poorly demarcated) and the character of the borders (eg, smooth, scalloped, geographic, angular, stellate, etc).

2

Patch

a flat lesion that is larger than a macule. Boundary between macule & patch is 5mm or 10mm.

3

Papule

a discrete firm lesion that is elevated above surrounding skin. Descriptors include flat-topped, dome-shaped, conical, acuminate, follicular, umbilicated, pedunculated, hyperkeratotic, lichenified (often in combination).

4

Plaque

is a papule with a diameter >5mm or 10mm. It can be a single large papule or a cluster of coalescing papules. Descriptors include those for papule plus linear, arcuate, annular, & more.

5

Nodule

discrete, palpable, usually round or oval lesion of the skin >1cm in diameter. Applies to processes involving any or all levels of the skin. Can be benign or malignant. Can involve any tissue of the skin. Nodules are often spherical and involve both depth & elevation. Can be soft (eb, lipoma), firm (keloid), or hard. Descriptors include lobulated, spherical, lens-shaped.

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Tumor or mass

an even larger solid lesion that also can be either benign or malignant

7

Wheal

(also called hives or urticaria) a plaque caused by temporary edema in the upper dermis. Usually flat-topped and no epidermal change (eg scale or lichenification). Can vary in size & shape. Color is often light pink but may be bright red, even very pale, or red along margins and pale in the middle. This is not due to pigmentary change but to degree of dilation of blood vessels in the superficial dermis. Wheals blanch upon pressure. Descriptors include round, annular, arcuate, polycyclic, with round or arcuate configurations. Should be distinguished from angioedema, massive edema involving the entire dermis & subcutaneous tissues.

8

Vesicle

a small, circumscribed, usually elevated, fluid-filled lesion

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Bulla(e)

a large vesicle >5mm (or 10mm). May attain diameters of several cms. Descriptors include tense vs flaccid/fragile; hemorrhagic.

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Pustule

a circumscribed, elevated lesion containing purulent material. Some regard this as a secondary lesion, specifically a vesicle whose contents evolve from serum → pus.

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Cyst

A palpable, compressible nodule with distinct borders. On palpation, it seems to be spherical with fluid or semi-solid contents.

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Comedo

(plural = comedones): Dilated orifice to a hair follicle filled with a plug made of keratin & sebum. Closed comedones are whiteheads; open comedones are blackheads.

13

Cutaneous horn

discrete, hard or keratotic papule with an outward projection that is greater than the lesion’s diameter at its base. Generally cylindrical with same diam from base to end.

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Telangiectasia

permanent dilation of superficial blood vessels, nonpalpable

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Petechiae

Tiny purpuric macule, about 1mm (or smaller) in diameter,

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Pupura

Non-blanching discoloration of skin due to blood vessel damage that permits blood to escape, either in large amounts or as small numbers of red blood cells. Color may range from bright red to reddish-purple to puplish-black (when surrounding tissue is necrotic) or rust-colored (when lesions are several days to weeks old). Often flat (macular or patch) but may be elevated if blood vessels are inflamed (palpable purpura is regarded as a sign of vasculitis). Does not apply to congenital vascular birthmarks.

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Angioma or Hemangioma

Elevated lesion (papule or plaque) made of blood vessels. Can be congenital or acquired.

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Ecchymosis

Large lesion of purpura, may be palpable

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Telangiectasia

a dilated superficial blood vessel that blanches on pressure

20

Atrophy

thinning of the epidermis or dermis or both, that usually causes a depression in the skin. Epidermal atrophy usually causes a shiny, easily wrinkled surface to the skin. Dermal atrophy often produces a slight depression in the skin and allows one to see blood vessels

21

Burrow

an irregular, linear tunnel found in the uppermost part of epidermis. It is usually slightly raised and bordered by red, itchy skin. Caused by scabies

22

Erosion

a superficial denudation of the skin, usually implying focal loss of the epidermis. Usually oozing or moist. Does not lead to scarring

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Excoriation

scratch mark that removes the epidermis, leaving a linear erosion. There is usually serous or bloody exudate

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Crust

Crust

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Eschar

Thick, usually black, crust over an ulcer or necrotic tissue.

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Fissure

Linear or elongate, wedge-shaped (“canyon-shaped”) splits or cracks extending into dermis.

27

Pustule

discrete elevated vesicle or bulla of skin, usually small, containing purulent exudate composed of inflammatory leukocytes (pus), with or without cellular debris. May be superficial, deep-seated, follicular, grouped, etc, and may arise secondarily from a vesicle.

28

Scar

a lesion composed of dense fibrotic tissue covered by an intact epidermis. Indicates a healed (or healing) injury from any sort of process (trauma or disease). Scars may be small (papules) or large (plaques); elevated or depressed (or level with the surrounding skin); firm or atrophic.

29

Scale

a thin flakes (or flaking layers) of epithelium that is separated from the underlying intact skin proper. Scales are mostly composed of the uppermost layer of the epidermis the stratum corneum.

30

Striae

A special type of atrophy where dermis or epidermis (or both) has been stretched, weakened, and thinned. Usually reveals fine pink or silver lines.

31

Ulcer

circumscribed loss of tissue extending through the epidermis and into the dermis (or even deeper into subcutaneous fat). Ulcers are deeper than erosions. Since the dermis is involved, these heal with scars. Ecthyma is the term for an ulcer caused by a bacterial pathogen.

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Acral

Involving extremities (hands, feet, ears, etc)

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Annular

Ring-shaped with central clearing

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Arcuate

Arc-shaped (incomplete circles)

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Blanching

A reddish hue caused by dilated dermal blood vessels that is reversed or
suppressed with direct pressure

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Confluent

Running together

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Contiguous

Touching or adjacent

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Discrete

Distinct and separate

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Discoid

round (without central clearing); nummular

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Diffuse

Scattered, widely distributed (= diffuse)

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Eczematous

Eruption characterized by red, itchy, scaling (or crusting), & oozing

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Generalized

Scattered, widely distributed (= generalized)

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Grouped

Arranged in clusters. Individual lesions may be discrete or contiguous

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Guttate

Abundant, small, drop-like lesions

45

Herpetiform

Grouped vesicles on a red base (resembling herpes simplex)

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Iris

Arranged in concentric circles giving a targetoid or bull’s-eye appearance

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Lichenification

Thick, rough epidermis accentuating normal skin lines, due to rubbing or friction.

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Linear

Arranged in a line

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Livedoid

Subtle bluish netlike macular appearance due to that follows blood vessels

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Localized

In a limited area

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Nummular

Coin-shaped; round without central clearing

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Pedunculated

An exophytic lesion that has a stalk

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Petechial

Small non-blanching purpuric macules, usually multiple lesions, all

54

Polycyclic

Coalescing annular lesions. Circles that have fused together

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Reticulate

Netlike

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Serpiginous

Snake-like, creeping

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Sessile

An exophytic lesion (usually papule or nodule) that has base wider than elevation

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Stellate

Star-shaped (a circumscribed lesion with sharply-demarcated angular borders)

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Symmetric

Balanced on both sides

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Targetoid

Arranged in concentric circles giving an iris-like or bull’s-eye appearance

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Telangiectatic

Referring to dilated terminal capillaries

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Umbilicated

having a central dell or depression (usually refers to a papule).

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Vegetating

lushly growing, proliferating process, usually with exophytic features. May be soft or hard.

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Verrucous

with a wart-like, keratotic surface

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Zosteriform

Resembling shingles, following a unilateral dermatome

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Hypopigmentation

decrease in normal pigment and therefore lighter colored than surrounding skin

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Depigmentation

complete loss of melanin-derived pigment, which leaves the skin porcelain white

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Hyperpigmentation

darkened skin due to excessive melanin deposits in epidermis, dermis, or both