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Flashcards in terms Deck (15)
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1

oncogene

"cancer causing gene," derived from mutations in proto-oncogenes (normal cellular growth & differentiation)--result in aberrant growth and differentiation. they encode for onco-proteins that are devoid of important regulatory elements

2

hyperplasia

enlargement due to an increased NUMBER of cells

3

hypertrophy

enlargement due to and increase of the SIZE and (sometimes) number of cells

4

metaplasia

reversible change from one type of fully mature cell to a different type of mature cell that is normally not found in tissue involved

5

dysplasia

partially reversible change from a mature cell to a cell with abnormalities in both differentiation and maturation

6

tumor supressor genes

regulate cell growth through interactions of their products with products of growth stimulating genes

7

neoplasia/neoplasm

abnormal, uncontrolled growth of tissue, functioning autonomously and outside of regulation by surrounding tissues

8

carcinoma-in-situ

premalignant lesion, sever dysplasia involving the entire thickness of an epithelial layer--not malignant because it hasn't yet broken through the basement membrane of epithelial tissue

9

anaplasia

cells that lack any evidence of differentiation (well differentiated cells closely resemble tissue of origin)

10

invasive carcinoma

malignant neoplasm composed of epithelial cells that infiltrate and destroy surrounding tissue and may metastasize

11

metastatic carcinoma

movement and implantation of malignant tumor (that arises from the skin or lining of organs) to other tissues

12

adjuvant

immunological or pharmacological agent used in addition to other therapies--e.g., surgery used to remove tumor, the adjuvant chemo to reduce chance of reoccurrence

13

neoadjuvant

administration of therapeutic agents before a main treatment (aims to reduce size and/or extent of cancer before radical treatment)

14

remission

end to the signs and symptoms of cancer/tumor (nothing identifiable--still could have cancer cells growing somewhere)

15

cure

5yr or 10yr highly reduced likelihood that a cancer will come back