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The Language Of Medicine 9th Edition (Davi-Ellen Chabner) Chapters 1-4 > Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Terms Deck (13):
1

anabolism

process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials. Anabolism produces proteins such as hormones and enzymes that are important to growth of cells. Anabolism occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum of a cell.

2

catabolism

Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy.

3

cell membrane

Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines what enters and leaves the cell.

4

chromosomes

Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contains regions of DNA called genes. There are 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell except for the egg and sperm cells, which contain only 23 individual, unpaired chromosomes.

5

cytoplasm

All the material that is outside the nucleus and yet contained within the cell membrane.

6

DNA

Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a sequence of recipes in code, in directs the activities of the cells.

7

endoplasmic reticulum

Structure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large proteins are made from smaller protein pieces. Anabolism takes place on the ribosomes of the endoplasmic reticulum.

8

genes

Regions of DNA within each chromosome.

9

karyotype

Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. The chromosomes are arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure.

10

metabolism

The total of the chemical processes in a cell. It includes catabolism and anabolism.

11

mitochondria

Structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy. Catabolism takes place in mitochondria

12

nucleus

Control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell.

13

adipose tissue

Collection of fat cells.