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1

Synemmenon

The fifth type of tetrachord for Aristoxenus

2

Stretto

In FUGUE, the procedure of beginning a second statement of the subject before the preceding statement has finished

3

Ars Nova

14th century polyphony (opposite of 13th century polyphony = ars antiqua). Based on new notational techniques in Vitry's "Ars Nova" (c. 1322)

4

Ausführung

Realization (the score itself) and Composing out (cf. Schenker). Also the second stage in Koch and Sulzer's compositional plan Anlage-Ausfuhrung-Ausarbeitung

5

Fauxbourdon

Similar to organum, but favors imperfect intervals as opposed to perfect ones (parallel 6/3 chords). British origins, but developed by the French in the 15th century

6

Organum

A type of medieval polyphony (the earliest type, precursor to counterpoint in general). From the 12th century [on] it was used specifically to refer to music with a sustained-note tenor (usually a pre-existing part) and more mobile upper part or parts.

7

The Law of Prägnanz

Wertheimer and the Gestalt school. We perceive the best and simplest organization afforded by the circumstances

8

Metalepsis (transumption)

A figure of speech in which a word or a phrase from figurative speech is used in a new context. The "troping of a trope" (Bloom).

9

Noema

- A rhetorical figure to do with texture
- A homophonic passage within a contrapuntal piece (rhetorical definition)
- In phenomenology (Husserl), “a thing as we actually encounter it in lived experience”, “the things themselves”

10

Mehrdeutigkeit

Multiple meaning
Vogler: Modulation may exploit the “multiple meaning” of chords in two ways (pivot chord and enharmonic modulation)
Weber: the cognitive processes an “ideal listener” faces when closely attending to a (new) progression

11

expressive genre

- Robert Hatten, “Musical Meaning in Beethoven" (1994)
- Genres that imply changes of state, narrative, drama, topoi,
- e.g. Pastoral, Romance

12

Daseian notation

The type of musical notation used in the ninth century anonymous musical treatises Musica enchiriadis and Scolica enchiriadis (the first examples of written polyphony)

13

Mese

The equivalent of the note "a", the middle point of the Boethian double octave

14

Zwischendominante

Secondary dominants, applied dominants

15

sedes troporum

- Contractus’s doctrine to do with modal species
- extension of Guido's modi vocum
- taking the graves, finales, superiores, excellentes tetrachords and adding notes on either side to span a sixth

16

Diapente

medieval name for the perfect fifth

17

Pythagorean comma (a.k.a. Ditonic comma)

- 23.46 cents, slightly bigger than syntonic comma
- the difference between twelve 5ths and seven octaves.
- the total amount of temperament on a modern piano sums to this (each P5 is tempered by 1/12 of a P. comma)

18

Syntonic comma

- The difference between 81:64 (Pythagorean major third) and 80:64 (just-tuned major third)
- It’s about 1/9th of a whole tone (a whole tone = 9:8)
- the difference between a just major 3rd and four just perfect 5ths less two octaves,
- 21.51 cents

19

Extra-motival rows

- What Babbitt calls “contextual”
- Term developed by Ernst Krenek and Richard Hill
- rows that are not just motives on the surface, but actually structural at a deep level

20

Partimento

“preluding”, improvising and expanding on unfigured bass lines

21

Übergreifen

Reaching over (cf. Schenker)

22

double-tonic complex

term employed by Robert Bailey (1977) in the context of Wagnerian analysis

23

Ars musica

The “harmonics tradition”: ancient Greek theory

24

Prima pratica VS Seconda pratica

- Monteverdi’s battle with Artusi in the very early 17th century (beginnings of the baroque period)
- Prima pratica refers to the old style of Palestrina, where dissonances are properly prepared and resolved
- Seconda pratica refers to the new style, the freer, rhetorically expressive style of the northern Italian concertato

25

floating tonality

“Floating (schwebend) tonality was Arnold Schoenberg’s term to describe music that oscillated between two or more keys regardless of whether they were major or minor.” He used it for Wagner

26

tonal fusion (Tonverschmelzung)

Stumpf: consonance is the result of “tonal fusion”: two tones blending until they are perceived as “unitary”. Dissonance is the lack of tonal fusion.

27

hexachordal mutation

Shifting between the “natural”, “hard”, and “soft” hexachords of Guido

28

Z-relations

- Pitch-class sets that have the same interval vector but not the same prime form.
- They are not able to be transformed into one another by Transposition or Inversion
- They always occur in pairs, at least for the equal temperament system
- Also known as “isomeric relations”

29

Modal affinity

- Hucbald of St Amand hinted at it
- Guido described it
- The relationship between medieval modes that have the same pitches but in different order, i.e. the relationship between authentic and plagal modes that have the same final

30

Phonicity

Oettingen: “the property of the pitches that constitute an interval or chord to possess common partials. The lowest of all such partials is called the phonic overtone.”