Test 1 Flashcards Preview

Pediatrics > Test 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (131)
Loading flashcards...

What is twinning?

Either fusion or gemination. Need radiographic evaluation to distinguish.


Fusion vs. Gemination

Fusion: two roots, one crown.. Macrodontia from dentinal union of 2 developing teeth. Deficient number of teeth. separate or shared pulp chambers.
Gemination: one root, two crowns. Incomplete division. Bifid crown with one pulp chamber. Increased number of teeth.


What syndromes are associated with microdontia?

Hemifacial microsomia, downs, ED.


What syndromes are associated with macrodontia?

Facial hemihypertrophy, otodental syndrome.


Hemifacial microsomia




Constriction of CEJ and elongated pulp chamber with apically displaced pulp. HYPODONTIA associated. Elongated pulp chamber with short stunted roots. Failure of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath.


Amelogenesis Imperfecta

Type 1: hypoplastic (secretory defect)
Type 2: Hypomaturation (protein processing and crystalline maturation defect)
Type 3: Hypocalcified (mineralization defect)
Type 4: Hypomaturation, hypoplastic type with taurodontism.


Type 1 Amelogenesis Imperfecta

Lack of cell differentiation into ameloblasts during histodifferentiation. Hypoplastic type. Insufficient enamel quality, matrix imperfectly formed, but calcified. Smaller teeth. Thermal sensitivity. Hard, rough, pitted, thiner.


AI Type 2

Hypomaturation. Persistence of organic content in enamel rod sheath during apposition. Deficient mineral quantity, normal thickness. Reduced enamel radiodencity. Pourous enamel. Molted enamel with brown-yellow-white collor. Not excessively susceptible to abrasion or dental caries.


AI Type 3

Most common type. Matrix normal in thickness, but calcification deficient during mineralization phase leading to soft fragile enamel, lost soon after eruption. Delayed eruption. Rough surface, increased permeability, increased calculus, stains easily. Moth eaten appearance radiographically.


AI Type 4

Defects in apposition and histodifferentiation. Enamel molted with yellow brown color and pitted on facial surfaces. Taurodontism of molars, enlarged pulp chambers.



Micropthalmos, microcornea, epicanthal folds, fine sparse hair, enamel hypoplasia, MN with wide alveolar ridge, syndactyly of fingers and toes, muscle weakness, nystagmus.


Dentinogenesis Imperfecta

Developmental defect during histodifferentiation causing abnormal matrix common to teeth and bone. Type 1 collagen.


Clinical Features of Dentinogenesis Imperfecta

Teeth a red-brown to gray opalescent color. Susceptible to wear, pulpal abcess


Radiographic features of DI

Bulbous crowns and slender roots. Pulpal obliteration. Small or absent with ribbon like pulp canals. Root fractures.


DI Treatment

Primary: Full coverage restorations to prevent wear of posterior teeth, esthetics, pulp therapy or extractions with severe pulp obliteration.
Permanent: Bleaching, resin/veneer/full coverage. Rootcanals for posterior.


Dentinogenesis Imperfecta Shields Type 1

Blue sclera, bone fragility, normal inteligence. Primary more affected than permanent. Occurs with OI.


DI Shields Type 2

Same as 1 except permanent teeth equally affected. No osteogenesis imperfecta.


DI Shields Type 3

Rare. Brandywine population in Maryland. Shell like teeth with short roots and multible pulp exposures.


Dentin Dysplaisa

Group of dentin disorders. Results from apposition phase. Anomalies of circumpulpal dentin and root morphology. Two types.


DD Shields Type 1

Primary and permanent: Normal crown morphology. Abnormal crown color with amber translucency. Periapical radiolucencies. No pulp chambers. Blockage of dentinal tubules from calcified masses. Short, contricted roots.


DD Shields Type 2

Primary dentition: Amber color similar to DI.
Permanent: Radiographically normal, thistly shaped pulp chamber and pulp stones. No periapical radiolucencies.


Epidermolysis Bullosa

Associated with Cementum disorders.



Associated with cementum disorders. Premature/spontaneous tooth expholiation. Alveolar bone loss in anterior.


Tricho Dento Osseus Syndrome

Enamel hypolasia of primary/permanent dentition. Taurodontism. Curly hair, brittle nails. Delayed bone age.


Oculofaciocardiodental Syndrome

Canine radiculomegaly. Variable root length. Delayed dental development and eruption. Retained primary teeth. Oligodontia.


Which procedures require ABX Prophylaxis?

All dental procedures that involve manipulation of gingival tissue or the periapical region of teeth or perforation of the oral mucosa.


What indicates the need for ABX prophylaxis?

Prosthetic cardiac valve or prosthetic material used for cardiac valve repair. Previous infective endocardtitis. CHD, Unrepaired CHD, Completely repaired CHD, Repaired CHD with defects, Cardiac transplantation.


When is abx prophylaxis required for shunts, catheters, etc.

Only at the time of placement to prevent surgical site infection. Immunocompromised should be considered separately.


Prosthetic joints abx prophylaxis

Conflicting recommendations. No prophylaxis for pints, plates, screws or other hardware that is not in the synovial joint. Not routinely indicated for total joint replacement. Consider prophylaxis for high risk.