Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (175):

1

## Kilo- (k)

### 1000 units (10^3)

2

## Hecto- (h)

### 100 units

3

## Deka- (da)

### 10 units

4

## Deci- (d)

### 0.1 units

5

## Centi- (c)

### 0.01 units (10^-2)

6

## Milli- (m)

### 0.001 units (10^-3)

7

## Mega- (M)

### 1,000,000 units (10^6)

8

## Speed of light

### 3 x 10^8 m/s

9

## 3 subatomic particles

###
Neutrons

Electrons

Protons

10

## Neutrons and protons inside the nucleus

### Nucleons

11

## 2 nucleons

###
Neutrons

Protons

12

## Radius of the nucleus

### 10^-15 m

13

## Radius of the electronic orbit of electrons around the nucleus

### 10^-10 m

14

## The nucleus orbit is _______ than the electron orbit

### Smaller

15

## The mass of a nucleon is about _______ times that of an electron

### 2,000

16

## A theory of atomic structure in which an atom is assumed to consist of protons as nucleons in the nucleus, with electrons moving in distinct circular orbits around it, each orbit corresponding to a specific quantized energy state

### Bohr's model

17

## Max number of electrons in each respective shell

### 2n^2

18

## Electrons closer to the nucleus have ________ binding energy

### Higher

19

## Number of protons

### Atomic number (Z)

20

## Number of nucleons

### Atomic mass number (A) (amus)

21

## Formula for the number of neutrons

### N=A-Z

22

## How is the chemical identity of an element determined?

### By the number of protons in the nucleus

23

## What determines an element's chemical behavior?

### The number of electrons

24

## Two atomic nuclei with the same atomic number/Z/number of protons but a different number of neutrons

### Isotope

25

## Same number of neutrons but different atomic number (Z)

### Isotone

26

## Same mass number/number of nucleons (protons + neutrons)/A, but different atomic number/number of protons/Z

### Isobar

27

## Same mass number/number of nucleons/A, but in a different nuclear state (metastable state/different energy level = excited state)

### Isomer

28

## Every gram atomic weight of a substance contains ______ number of atoms

### The same

29

## Avagadro's number (NA)

### 6.0221 x 10^23 atoms per gram atomic weight (mole) or electrons/gram

30

## Atomic mass unit

### amu

31

## 1 amu = how many kg or Mev

###
1.66 x 10^-27

931.4 MeV

32

## Formula to find the number of atoms per gram for an element

###
Avagadro's number (NA)/atomic weight (AW)

6.0221 x 10^23 atoms/gram / AW

33

## 1 amu is equal to what of a Carbon-12 atom?

### 1/12 of a Carbon-12 atom

34

##
When subatomic particles join together to form an atom it takes energy to do so; the subatomic particles give up some of their mass to be converted to attain this necessary energy to hold the particles together

Difference of the mass of an element versus the mass of all subatomic particles in that particular atom

### Mass defect

35

## Amount of energy required to remove an electron from the atom

### Binding energy

36

## Mass of a proton

### 1.00727 amu

37

## Mass of a neutron

### 1.00866 amu

38

## Mass of an electron

### 0.000548 amu

39

## Formula for mass defect

### Atomic mass number - ((# of P+ * 1.00727) + (# of N * 1.00866) + (# of E- * (0.000548))

40

## Einstein's Theory of Relativity

### Energy (E) = mass (m) * speed of light (C)^2

41

## kgm^2/s^2

### Joules (J)

42

## 1 eV = how many J?

### 1.60218 x 10^-19 J

43

## 5 steps to find binding energy

###
Find the mass defect (amu)

Convert it to kilograms (kg)

Find the energy converted (E=mc^2)

Convert to eV

Convert to megaelectronvolts (MeV)

44

## Formula for converting mass defect (amu) to kg

### Mass defect (amu) x (1.66 x 10^-27 kg/1 amu) = kg

45

## Formula for converting energy (J) to eV

### eV = J/1.602x10^-19 eV

46

## Formula for converting eV to MeV

### MeV = eV/1,000,000

47

## Basic unit of energy

### Joule (J)

48

## 1 J/kg = ? Rads = ? Gy

### 1 J/kg = 100 Rads = 1 Gy

49

## 100 cGy = ? Gy

### 100 cGy = 1 Gy

50

## 1 cGy = ? rad = ? Gy

### 1 cGy = 1 rad = 0.01 Gy

51

##
Combination of two lighter nuclei that takes energy to put them together; low mass nuclei are combined to produce a larger nucleus

Nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei of low atomic number fuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release of energy

If light energy could combine, the average binding energy of the resulting nucleus would be greater, leaving excess energy to be released

Occurs in nature

Fuse two small particles to make a big one

### Nuclear fusion

52

##
Nucleus with an atomic number greater than 56 splits into two smaller nuclei and have a higher binding energy per nucleon and therefore energy is released (ex: atomic bomb or Uranium Nuclear Reactors split atoms to give off energy)

Occurs when high Z nuclei are bombarded by neutrons; after absorbing the neutrons, it splits into nuclei of lower Z, as well as more neutrons

Ex: (235/92)U + (1/0)n --> (236/92)U --> (141/56)Ba + (3)(1/0)n + Q (energy)

### Nuclear fission

53

##
As nature attempts to balance forces, spontaneous transformation of a nucleus into a lower binding energy occurs

This larger nucleus breaks into two or more parts that can be radioactive themselves (alpha particles, beta, etc.); excess energy is released as gamma rays and a new product called the daughter is more tightly bound (higher binding energy)

Nature attempts to minimize energy/make it as negative as possible by transforming one nucleus into another with lower (more negative) binding energy; this excess energy is released as radiation

Nuclei are breaking apart to become stable

### Radioactive decay

54

##
Resulting nucleus of radioactive decay that is more tightly bound

Some radioactive substances break down and give rise to a radioactive product

### Daughter

55

## Nuclei that do not undergo radioactive decay

### Stable

56

## Wave model (energy)

###
C=vλ

C=velocity

v=frequency (Hz or 1/sec)

λ=wavelength

57

## Describes the relationship between energy and frequency (λ)

### Plank's constant

58

## Graphs binding energy per nucleon vs. atomic number

### Curve of binding energy (BE)

59

## Average binding energy (BE) of most nuclei

### 8 MeV per nucleon

60

## BE per nucleon reaches peak with what element?

### Iron (Fe56)

61

## Excess energy is released from radioactive decay as this

### Gamma rays

62

## Too many protons make the nucleus _______

### Unstable

63

## Ratio of neutrons to protons

### 1.4 neutrons for 1 proton

64

##
A material composed of the antiparticle "partners" to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter

A particle and its antiparticle have the same mass as one another, but opposite electric charge and other quantum numbers

### Antimatter

65

## Particle with equal mass and magnitude to an electron but opposite sign of charge (+)

###
Postiron (e+)

Anti-electron

66

## Every particle has an ______

### Antiparticle

67

##
When positron meets electron, they disappear, leaving behind to gamma ray photons that travel in opposite directions

This is an example of the complete conservation of matter into energy as described by Einstein's equation E=mc^2

Charge is conserved because the net charge both before and after is zero

###
Annihilation reaction

e+ +e- = 2y

68

## What is the energy of each gamma ray emitted during annihilation reaction?

### 0.511 MeV

69

## Gamma radiation emitted during annihilation reaction

### Annihilation radiation

70

## The total energy of the two gamma photons emitted during annihilation reaction is equal to what?

### The rest mass energy of the positron plus electron

71

## What is common radiation therapy doses (Gy)?

### 1.8-2 Gy

72

## Plank's constant formula (to find wavelength given energy)

###
E =hc/λ

E = energy (J)

h = Plank's constant = 6.62 x 10^-34 J-sec

c = speed of light = 3x10^ 8 m/s

λ = wavelength (m) = usually a small number with an exponent at -14 to -15 range

73

## Plank's constant number (h)

### 6.62 x 10^-34 J-sec

74

## Frequency formula (wave + quantum model)

###
V = c/λ

V = frequency (1/s or Hz)

c = speed of light = 3x10^ 8 m/s

λ = wavelength (m) from Plank's constant formula

75

## Electron density formula

###
Number of electrons/grams = (NA x Z)/Aw

NA = 6.0221 x 10^23 atoms/g

Z = atomic number/number of protons

Aw = atomic weight/protons + neutrons

76

## What is the difference between kVp versus keV/MeV?

###
kVp infers there is a spectrum (highest energy) made from Brems interactions/manmade x-ray that is usually 1/3 of the beam = manmade

keV/MeV is a monoenergetic beam that is naturally occurring from radioactive decay

77

## 931.4 MeV = ? amu

### 1 amu

78

##
Number of constituent particles in atoms or molecules, contained in one mole

Ratio of molar mass of a compound to that of the mass of a sample (Carbon-12)

Has a reciprocal dimension

### Avagadro's constant

79

## Amount of substance that contains as many atoms as there are atoms in 12 grams of Carbon-12

### Mole

80

##
Number of atoms in 12 grams of Carbon-12

Dimensionless quantity

12 grams of Carbon-12 has 6.022 x 10^23 carbon atoms

### Avagadro's number (NA)

81

## Phenomenon where radiation is given off in the form of particles or electromagnet waves; atom is attempting to become stable

### Radioactivity

82

## 2 forms of radioactivity

###
Particle form

Electromagnetic

83

## 2 particle forms of radioactivity

###
Alpha (a)

Beta (B- or +)

84

## 2 beta particles

###
Electrons (B-)

Positrons (B+)

85

##
Helium nuclei

4/2He^2+ (2 protons, 2 neutrons, 0 electrons)

Travel a short distance in matter

### Alpha (a) particles

86

##
Gamma (y) rays, same as x-rays only originating from the nucleus

High energy photons (neutral)

Any photons emitted by nuclei or in electron-positron annihilation

Monoenergetic because it is naturally occurring (keV); specific energy

### Electromagnetic radiation from radioactivity

87

## All elements with Z greater than what are radioactive/unstable?

###
82 (lead)

Bismuth 83

88

##
Potential to decay, energy in an atom

Rate of decay; disintegrations per unit of time

### Activity

89

## Activity formula

###
At=Aoe^-λt

At = activity after time

Ao= original activity

t = time elapsed

λ = decay constant (ln2/T^1/2)

90

##
Amount of time for radioactive substance to decay to half its original activity or to decay to half the number of radioactive atoms (50% of the number of atoms remain or 50% of the original activity is present)

Shows radioactivity and decay is an exponential decay function/asymptotic

### Half-life (T^1/2)

91

## SI and traditional unit of activity

###
SI: Becquerel (Bq)

Traditional: Curie (Ci)

92

## 1 Bq = ? disintegrations per second

### 1 disintegration per second

93

## 1 Bq = ? Curie (Ci)

### 2.7 x 10^-11 Ci

94

## 1 Ci = ? Bq

### 3.7 x 10^10 Bq

95

## 1 mCi = ? Ci = ? Bq

### 1 mCi = 1/1000 Ci = 3.7 x 10^7 Bq

96

## A function whose value is a constant raised to the power of the argument

### Exponential function

97

## Line that gets closer to 0 but never touches

### Asymptotic

98

## Decay constant

### λ = -ln2/T^1/2 = -0.693/T^1/2

99

## ln2

### 0.693

100

## Portion of atoms decaying per unit of time

### Decay constant (λ)

101

##
Average lifetime of a radioactive atom; sum of all nuclei divided by total number of nuclei involved

Inverse of the decay constant

### Mean/average life (Ta)

102

## Formula for average life

###
Ta = 1.44(T^1/2)

Average life = 1.44(half-life)

103

## How many known elements are there?

### 118

104

## How many elements occur naturally?

### The first 92

105

## 2 kinds of radioactive equilibrium

###
Transient equilibrium

Secular equilibrium

106

##
Half-life of parent is not much longer than the daughter

Daughter product appears to decay with the half-life of the parent

T^1/2 parent > T^1/2 daughter (about 10 times)

Ex: Mo-99 (67 h) > Tc-99m (6.7 h); equilibrium occurs at about 1.5 days

### Transient equilibrium

107

##
Half-life of parent is much longer than the daughter

Daughter product appears to decay with the half-life of the parent

T^1/2 parent >> T^1/2 daughter

Ex: Ra-226 (1626 yrs) >> Rn-222 (3.8 days); equilibrium occurs at about 20-25 days

### Secular equilibrium

108

## Exponential function graph

### Logarithmic

109

## 5 modes of decay

###
Alpha (a) = alpha particles

Beta (B-) or negatron = electron

Beta (B+) or positron = opposite of electron

Electron capture

Internal conversion

110

##
Type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms/decays into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two

When bonds are broken, energy is given up

Heavy mass and charge = high interactions with matter (high QF)

Mass and energy are interchangeable

4/2He

Parent -> daughter + radioactive particle + energy

### Alpha (a) decay

111

## Alpha decay is most frequent with _____ atomic numbers (Z>_____)

### High, 82

112

## (A/Z)X => (A-4/Z-2)Y + (4/2)He + Q (energy)

### Alpha (a) decay

113

## In what energy range does alpha decay occur?

### 4-8 MeV

114

## How many times more effective in cell damage is alpha decay (high LET)?

### 20 x

115

## Radiation absorbed dose

### Rad

116

## Radiation in man

### Rem

117

##
Number applied to the absorbed dose at a point in order to take into account the differences in the effects of different types of radiation

Multiply by this to find the biological effect

### Quality factor (QF)

118

## 3 things alpha decay gives off and 1 it ends with

###
2 protons

2 electrons

0 neutrons

Ends with a particle

119

## Decay process which involves the ejection of a positron (B+) or negatron (B-)

### Beta decay

120

## (1/0)n --> (1/1)p + (0/-1) B + v

### Negatron (B-) emission

121

##
Decay process which converts a neutron to a proton and gives off an electron

Has excess neutrons (high n/p ratio) that must be reduced by emitting an electron

Neutron => proton + (B-) + antineutrino + Q (energy)

### Negatron (B-) emission

122

## (1/1)p --> (1/0)n + (0/+1) B + v

### Positron (B+) decay

123

##
Proton to neutron and kicks off betatron

Deficiency in neutrons (low n/p ratio)

Proton + energy (1.02 MeV) => neutron + (B+) + neutrino + Q (energy)

Proton --> neutron gives off positron to balance

1.02 MeV is the threshold energy; energy transmission of 1.02 MeV gets shared between the neutrino and positron

Mean energy is about E/3

Characteristic x-rays (27-31 keV)

### Positron (B+) decay

124

## Has no charge, no negligible mass, and hardly interacts with matter

### Antineutrino

125

## From where does beta decay originate?

### From within the nucleus

126

## Electron but with opposite charge

### Positron (B+)

127

## Rest mass of a beta particle

### 0.511 MeV

128

##
Alternative to positron decay; unstable nuclei deficient of neutrons seeks to increase n/p ratio (both reduce Z by 1)

Orbital electron gets captured by nucleus and combines with a proton, transforming into a neutron

Too many protons, needs more neutrons

Most often happens with K-shell (proximity) with heavier elements

Creates a vacancy in an electron shell => Auger electrons; atom reabsorbs energy then ejects an orbital electron with that energy

### Electron capture

129

## Characteristic and auger interactions are more probable with what Z?

###
Characteristic is more probable with high Z

Auger is more probable with low Z (<30)

130

## (1/1)p + (0/-1)e --> (1/0)n + v + Q

### Electron capture

131

##
Nucleus has excess energy after an interaction and passes it to an orbital electron => electron ejected from the atom

Atomic number remains the same, just becomes ionized/charged since there is a difference in electron composition

Alternative to gamma-emission

### Internal conversion

132

## 8 nuclear reactions

###
a, proton

a, neutron

Proton bombardment

Deuteron bombardment

Neutron bombardment

Photodisintegration

Fission

Fusion

133

##
Change in the identity or characteristics of an atomic nucleus that results when it is bombarded with an energetic particle

Adding things together

### Nuclear reactions

134

##
An element is bombarded with an alpha particle and gives off a proton

(A/Z)X + (4/2)He --> (A+3/Z+1)Y +(1/1)H + Q

### a, proton

135

##
An element is bombarded with an alpha particle and gives off a neutron to remain stable

(A/Z)X + (4/2)He --> (A+3/Z+2)Y +(1/0)H + Q

### a, neutron

136

##
A proton is captured by the nucleus and emits a gamma (y) ray; other less common proton reactions involve the nucleus capturing a proton, but emitting a neutron, deuteron, or alpha particle

An element is bombarded with a proton and gives off a different element and a gamma ray

### Proton bombardment

137

## Stable isotope of hydrogen with a mass approximately twice that of the usual isotope

### Deuterium

138

## (A/Z)X + (1/1)p --> (A+1/Z+1)Y + y (energy)

### Proton bombardment

139

##
Deuterium nucleus

Normal proton with electron spinning around it with a neutron attached

(2/1)d or (2/1)H

One proton and one neutron

### Deuteron

140

## A nucleus is bombarded with a deuteron and emits a proton or neutron

### Deuteron bombardment

141

## 2 types of deuteron bombardment

###
Proton produced

Neutron produced

142

##
Deuteron is not captured by the nucleus and passes close to nucleus; deuteron loses its proton (stripped off)

(A/Z)X + (2/1)d --> (A+1/Z)Y + (1/1)p

###
Deuteron bombardment when a proton is produced

Stripping

143

##
A nucleus is bombarded with a deuteron and emits a daughter and a neutron

(A/Z)X + (2/1)d --> (A+1/Z+1)Y + (1/0)n

### Deuteron bombardment when a neutron is produced

144

##
Neutrons, lacking in charge are very effective at penetrating nuclei; a nucleus is bombarded with a neutron and emits an alpha particle

(A/Z)X + (1/0)n --> (A-3/Z-2)Y + (4/2)He

### Neutron bombardment (n, y)

145

##
A high energy photon hits a nucleus and emits a nucleon(s), usually a neutron

(A/Z)X + y --> (A-1/Z)X (isotope) + 1/0n

### Photodisintegration

146

## (2/1)H + (3/1)H --> (4/2)He + (1/0)n + Q

### Fusion

147

## How much energy does a linac usually use?

### 6-18 MeV

148

## Half-life of radium-226 (Ra)

### 1626 years

149

## Half-life of radon-222 (Rn)

### 3.83 days

150

## Half-life of cesium-137 (Cs)

### 30 years

151

## Half-life of iridium-192 (Ir)

### 73.8 days

152

## Half-life of cobalt-60 (Co)

### 5.26 years

153

## Half-life of iodine-125 (I)

### 59.6 days

154

## Half-life of palladium-103 (Pd)

### 17 days

155

## Half-life of iodine-131 (I)

### 8.06 days

156

## Rest mass of an electron (e-, B-, (0/-1)B) and positron (e+, B+, (0/+1)B)

### 9.11 x 10^-31 kg

157

## Rest energy of an electron (e-, B-, (0/-1)B) and positron (e+, B+, (0/+1)B)

### 0.511 MeV

158

## What is a practical use of electrons (e-, B-, (0/-1)B)?

### RT treatment of shallow tumors

159

## What is a practical use of positrons (e+, B+, (0/+1)B)?

###
Antimatter, PET imaging - gives off positron when it decays

Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with F18 is metabolized like glucose and shows increased metabolic activity (cancer)

160

## Charge of an electron (e-, B-, (0/-1)B)

### -1

161

## Charge of a positron (e+, B+, (0/+1)B) and proton (p or (1/1)H)

### +1

162

## Rest mass of a proton (p or (1/1)H)

### 1.672 x 10^-27 kg

163

## Rest energy of a proton (p or (1/1)H)

### 938.3 MeV

164

## What is a practical use of protons (p or (1/1)H)?

### RT treatment

165

## Charge of a neutron (n or (1/0)n)

### 0

166

## Rest mass of a neutron (n or (1/0)n)

### 1.675 x 10^-27 kg

167

## Rest energy of a neutron (n or (1/0)n)

### 939.6 MeV

168

## What is the practical use of a neutron (n or (1/0)n)?

### Containment after 10 Mv

169

## (4/2)He

### Alpha particle (a)

170

## (1/1)p

### Proton

171

## (2/1)d

### Deuteron

172

## (0/1)n

### Neutron

173

## (0/-1)e or (0/-1)B

### Electron

174

## (0/+1)B

### Beta plus

175