Flashcards in Test 1: Ch 1-3 Deck (31):

1

## Stages of research process

###
1. Ask question

2. Form hypothesis

3. Collect data

4. Analyze data

5. Evaluate hypothesis

2

## Empirical Research

### Based on evidence that can be verified with direct experience

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## Hypothesis

### Tentative answer to research problem

4

## Theory

### Explanation of the relationships between two or more observable attributes of individuals or groups.

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## Variable

### A property (people or objects) that takes two or more values

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## Exhaustiveness

### There should be enough categories composing the variable to classify every observation

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## Units of analysis

### The level of social life that social scientists focus on

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## Dependent variable

###
-influenced by independent variable

-always the object of the research

9

## Independent variable

###
-influences dependent variable

-occurs earlier in time

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## Nominal measurement

### Categories

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## Ordinal measurement

### Low to high

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## Interval-ratio measurement

### Expressed in same units

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## Dichotomous variable

###
-nominal values

-only two categories or levels

14

## Discrete variable

###
-minimum-sized unit of measurement

-can’t be subdivided

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## Continuous variable

###
-no minimum measurement

-can be subdivided into increasingly smaller fractional values

16

## Descriptive statistics

### Procedures that help organize and describe data collected

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## Statistics

### Set of procedures used by social scientists to organize, summarize, and communicate info

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## Inferential statistics

### Logic and procedures concerned with making predictions or inferences about a population from observations and analyses

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## Data

###
-Info represented by numbers

-can be subject of statistical analysis

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## Mode

### Category score with highest frequency

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## Frequency distribution

### Table reporting the number of observations falling into each category of variable

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## Proportion

###
p=f/n

P-proportion

F-frequency

N-total number of cases

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## Percentage

###
%=f/n(100)

Relative frequency obtained by dividing frequency in each category by the total number of cases and multiplying by 100

24

## Percentage distribution

### A table showing the % of observations falling into each category of the variable

25

## Cumulative frequency distribution

### Distribution showing the frequency at or below each category of variable

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## Cumulative % distribution

### Distribution showing the percentage at or below each category of the variable

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## Rate

### Number obtained by dividing the number of occurrences in a given time period by the number of possible occurrences

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## Bimodal

### Two modes having two maxima

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## Maxima and minima

### Largest and smallest values of a function

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## Median

### The score that divides the distribution into two equal parts so that half the cases are above and half are below

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