Test 1: Ch 1-3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 1: Ch 1-3 Deck (31):
1

Stages of research process

1. Ask question
2. Form hypothesis
3. Collect data
4. Analyze data
5. Evaluate hypothesis

2

Empirical Research

Based on evidence that can be verified with direct experience

3

Hypothesis

Tentative answer to research problem

4

Theory

Explanation of the relationships between two or more observable attributes of individuals or groups.

5

Variable

A property (people or objects) that takes two or more values

6

Exhaustiveness

There should be enough categories composing the variable to classify every observation

7

Units of analysis

The level of social life that social scientists focus on

8

Dependent variable

-influenced by independent variable
-always the object of the research

9

Independent variable

-influences dependent variable
-occurs earlier in time

10

Nominal measurement

Categories

11

Ordinal measurement

Low to high

12

Interval-ratio measurement

Expressed in same units

13

Dichotomous variable

-nominal values
-only two categories or levels

14

Discrete variable

-minimum-sized unit of measurement
-can’t be subdivided

15

Continuous variable

-no minimum measurement
-can be subdivided into increasingly smaller fractional values

16

Descriptive statistics

Procedures that help organize and describe data collected

17

Statistics

Set of procedures used by social scientists to organize, summarize, and communicate info

18

Inferential statistics

Logic and procedures concerned with making predictions or inferences about a population from observations and analyses

19

Data

-Info represented by numbers
-can be subject of statistical analysis

20

Mode

Category score with highest frequency

21

Frequency distribution

Table reporting the number of observations falling into each category of variable

22

Proportion

p=f/n

P-proportion
F-frequency
N-total number of cases

23

Percentage

%=f/n(100)

Relative frequency obtained by dividing frequency in each category by the total number of cases and multiplying by 100

24

Percentage distribution

A table showing the % of observations falling into each category of the variable

25

Cumulative frequency distribution

Distribution showing the frequency at or below each category of variable

26

Cumulative % distribution

Distribution showing the percentage at or below each category of the variable

27

Rate

Number obtained by dividing the number of occurrences in a given time period by the number of possible occurrences

28

Bimodal

Two modes having two maxima

29

Maxima and minima

Largest and smallest values of a function

30

Median

The score that divides the distribution into two equal parts so that half the cases are above and half are below

31

Percentile

A score below which a specific % of the distribution falls