Test 1 content-Glucose management on CPB Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology CVP 622 > Test 1 content-Glucose management on CPB > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 1 content-Glucose management on CPB Deck (53)
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1

Pre-diabetic fasting blood glucose level range

within 100-125 mg/dl

2

A fasting blood glucose level over 126 mg/dl is considered

Diabetic

3

Which type of diabetes is considered "juvenille"?

Type 1

4

Type 1 diabetes is in what percent of the population?

5-10%

5

Complete lack of insulin secretion by the pancreas is which type of diabetes?

Type 1

6

Diabetes type ll occurs in which percent of the population?

90-95%

7

Insulin resistance resulting from multiple etiologies is which type?

Type ll

8

Multiple etiologies associated with type ll diabetes (4)

*Genetic predesposition
*Unhealthy diet
*Lack of physical activity
*Central pattern weight gain

9

2 ways to measure blood glucose? How?

Short term-Glucose monitor or a blood gas analyzer in OR
Long term-Use a hemoglobin A1c test

10

What does an A1c test measure?

Average blood sugar for the last 2-3 months

11

At higher glucose levels, ________ become inelastic and stenotic

Blood vessels

12

Hemoglobin undergoes slow _____ with average glucose concentration over the 120 day life span of RBC's

Glycosylation

ADA recomments a A1c level below 7%

13

Glycosylation % is

A1c

14

________ activates pathways for long term inflammation and immune response

Hyperglycemia

15

What are the 2 main functions of the pancreas?

*Exocrine function (Aids in digestion)
*Endocrine function (Regulates blood sugar)

16

The endocrine component of the pancreas consists of _____ cells

Islet cells. (islets of langerhans)

17

What do islet cells do?

*They create and release hormones into the bloodstream

18

Two main hormones released by islet cells are:

Insulin-Which lowers blood sugar (when high)
Glucagon-Which raises blood sugar (when low)

19

What are the 4 types of cells within the islets that regulate blood glucose levels?

*Alpha cells
*Beta cells
*Delta cells
*Gamma cells (PP cells)

20

What do alpha cells do?

Secrete glucagon-increase glucose in blood

21

What do beta cells do?

Secrete insulin-decrease glucose in blood

22

What do delta cells do?

Secrete somatostatin-regulates/stops alpha and beta cells

23

What do gamma cells (PP cells) do?

Secrete pancreatic polypeptide-pancreatic polypeptide regulates both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic secretions

24

Activity of the cells in the islets is affected by the _____

ANS-autonomic nervous system

25

T/F-The capillaries of the islets are lined by layers of islet cells

True

26

Following statement relate to diabetic or non-diabetic patients? Circulating concentrations of insulin inhibit platelet aggregation and thrombosis by inhibiting tissue factor and inhibiting production of plasminogen activator inhibitor -1 (PAI-1)

Non diabetic patients

27

What percent of diabetics have a CABG?

Roughly 28%

28

T/F-Following a CABG diabetics will have higher morbidity and mortality, and a greater chance of stroke, renal failure, and sternal wound infections

True

(44% greater chance of readmission after CABG discharge)

29

Following statement relate to diabetic or non-diabetic patients? Insulin resistance promotes increased synthesis of PAl-1 and fibrinogen as well as reduced production of tissue plasminogen activator, these factors collectively result in atherothrombosis

Diabetic patients

30

T/F-Most endocrine cells have indirect contact with blood vessels

False! Most endocrine cells have direct contact with bv