Flashcards in Test #2 Deck (44):
the scientific study of drugs \neural mechanisms of addiction
drugs that influence the subjective experience and behavior by acting on the nerves system
What are the four ways that drugs are administered
absorption mucous membranes of the nose, mouth or rectum
Depending on the route, how does this affect the body's response towards it
It influences how much and how fast the drug will affect the body
biological effect of oral drug intake?
Once swallowed, the drug is dissolve in the stomach fluids--> it's carried to the intestine, --->absorbing in the bloodstream.
Some pass through thet stomach wall (alcohol) which take affect sooner because it does to have to be absorbed by the intestine
How can some drugs that are taken orally, take affect sooner than others for example, alcohol?
It takes affect sooner because some drugs can pass through the stomach wall and therefore do not have to be absorbed by the intestine.
breakdown products of the body's chemical reactions
Two main advantages of the oral route
ease and relative safety
The unpredictability of the intake such as the amount of food that was consumed prior to taking the drug
Drugs injections that are injected into the fatty tissue beneath the skin are injected..
Drug injections that are injected into the muscle are injected...
Drugs injections that are injected into the veins right below the skin are injected
What type of injection (IM, SC, IV) delivers the drug directly to the brain?
What are the negative side effects of an Intravenous drug intake?
It gives the person little to no time for counteract (reduce) the effects and overdose
biological effect of injections
What are the ways in which in can be injected?
Strong fast and predictable
Taken in three ways
IM- Intramuscular injection
IV- Intravenous injection
Physiological effects of inhalation
absorbed into the blood steam through rich network of capillaries in the lungs.
Negative effects of inhalation
difficult to regulate dose of inhaled drugs
damaging of the lungs if inhaled chronically
Absorption through mucus membranes are in areas like
What happens next after the drug enters the blood stream?
It's carried to the blood vessels of the central nervous system
What does the blood brain barrier do in terms of drug intake?
It makes it difficult for many potentially dangerous chemicals to pass from the blood vessels of the CNS (brain and spine) to its neurons
What are two ways in which a drug can influence the nervous system?
Some drugs can act diffusely on neural membranes through the CNS
Binding to a specific synaptic receptor
What happens when a drug affects the CNS?
It acts diffusely on neural membranes through the CNS
What two things can happen when a drug binds to a specific synaptic receptors
It binds to a specific synaptic receptors --> then influences the synthesis, transport, release or deactivation of neurotransmitter
by influencing the chain of chemical reactions elected in postsynaptic neurons by the activation of their receptors
Most drugs are terminated by _______ and synthesized by the _____
A process of liver enzymes that stimulate the conversation of the active drugs to non active forms
Eliminates the ability to pass through the lipid membrane so that it doesn't penetrate the blood brain barrier
Passed from the body through
A state of decreased sensitivity to a drug that develops as a result of exposure to it
What are the two ways in which drug tolerance can be demonstrated?
Showing that a given dose of a drug has less effect that it had before drug exposure
or that it takes more of the drug intake to produce the same effect
When one drug can produce tolerance to other drugs of the same mechanism
Tolerance may develop to some effects of a drug while _____ to other effects of the same drug ____
Increasing sensitivity to a drug
drug tolerance resulting from changes that reduce the amount of drug getting to its site of action
Drug tolerance resulting in the changes that reduce drug reactivity of the sites of action
Functional tolerance to psychoactive drugs can result from...
Adaptive neural changes-
-reduce the number of receptors for it
-decrease efficiency of the binding of existing receptors
-diminish the impact of receptors binding to the activity of the cell
Physiological reaction of the body that is triggered from sudden elimination after significant amounts of a drug has been in the body for a period of time
With drawl can be produced by the same neural changes that produce ____
Because it has the opposite effect of the drug
What is the physiological effects of withdrawing
exposure to a drug produces compensatory (reducing) changes in the nervous system that offset the drugs affect and produce tolerance.
Then when the drug is eliminated from the body, these compensatory neural changes- without the drug to offset them- manifest themselves as withdrawal symptoms that are opposite to the initial effects of the drug.
What produces greater withdrawal effect?
longer exposure to greater doses followed by more rapid elimination produces greater withdrawal effects
Drug users who continue a drug despite its effects on their health and social life and their inability to stop using it.
Contingent drug tolerance
demonstrations that drug tolerance actually develops only to drug effects that are actually experienced
continued drug tolerance
refers to demonstrations the tolerance effects are maximally expressed only when a drug is administered in the same situation in which has previously been administered
three stages involved in the development in of an addiction
initial drug taking
habitual drug taking
drug craving and repeated relapse
Behavioral trait linked to increased tendency for initial drug taking