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Flashcards in Test #2 Deck (44):
1

pharmacology

the scientific study of drugs \neural mechanisms of addiction

2

psychoactive drugs

drugs that influence the subjective experience and behavior by acting on the nerves system

3

What are the four ways that drugs are administered

Oral ingestion
injection
inhalation
absorption mucous membranes of the nose, mouth or rectum

4

Depending on the route, how does this affect the body's response towards it

It influences how much and how fast the drug will affect the body

5

biological effect of oral drug intake?

Once swallowed, the drug is dissolve in the stomach fluids--> it's carried to the intestine, --->absorbing in the bloodstream.
Some pass through thet stomach wall (alcohol) which take affect sooner because it does to have to be absorbed by the intestine

6

How can some drugs that are taken orally, take affect sooner than others for example, alcohol?

It takes affect sooner because some drugs can pass through the stomach wall and therefore do not have to be absorbed by the intestine.

7

Metabolites

breakdown products of the body's chemical reactions

8

Two main advantages of the oral route

ease and relative safety

9

A disadvantage

The unpredictability of the intake such as the amount of food that was consumed prior to taking the drug

10

Drugs injections that are injected into the fatty tissue beneath the skin are injected..

Subcutaneously (SC)

11

Drug injections that are injected into the muscle are injected...

intramuscularly (IM)

12

Drugs injections that are injected into the veins right below the skin are injected

Intravenously (IV)

13

What type of injection (IM, SC, IV) delivers the drug directly to the brain?

IV

14

What are the negative side effects of an Intravenous drug intake?

It gives the person little to no time for counteract (reduce) the effects and overdose

15

biological effect of injections
What are the ways in which in can be injected?

Strong fast and predictable
Taken in three ways
IM- Intramuscular injection
IV- Intravenous injection
SC- Subcutaneous

16

Physiological effects of inhalation

absorbed into the blood steam through rich network of capillaries in the lungs.

17

Negative effects of inhalation

difficult to regulate dose of inhaled drugs
damaging of the lungs if inhaled chronically

18

Absorption through mucus membranes are in areas like

nose
mouth
rectum

19

What happens next after the drug enters the blood stream?

It's carried to the blood vessels of the central nervous system

20

What does the blood brain barrier do in terms of drug intake?

It makes it difficult for many potentially dangerous chemicals to pass from the blood vessels of the CNS (brain and spine) to its neurons

21

What are two ways in which a drug can influence the nervous system?

Some drugs can act diffusely on neural membranes through the CNS
Binding to a specific synaptic receptor

22

What happens when a drug affects the CNS?

It acts diffusely on neural membranes through the CNS

23

What two things can happen when a drug binds to a specific synaptic receptors

It binds to a specific synaptic receptors --> then influences the synthesis, transport, release or deactivation of neurotransmitter

by influencing the chain of chemical reactions elected in postsynaptic neurons by the activation of their receptors

24

Most drugs are terminated by _______ and synthesized by the _____

enzymes
liver

25

Drug metabolism

A process of liver enzymes that stimulate the conversation of the active drugs to non active forms
Eliminates the ability to pass through the lipid membrane so that it doesn't penetrate the blood brain barrier

26

Elimination

Passed from the body through
Urine
Feces
Breast milk
breath
Sweat

27

Drug tolerance

A state of decreased sensitivity to a drug that develops as a result of exposure to it

28

What are the two ways in which drug tolerance can be demonstrated?

Showing that a given dose of a drug has less effect that it had before drug exposure

or that it takes more of the drug intake to produce the same effect

29

Cross tolerance

When one drug can produce tolerance to other drugs of the same mechanism

30

Tolerance may develop to some effects of a drug while _____ to other effects of the same drug ____

sensitivity
increases

31

Drug sensitization

Increasing sensitivity to a drug

32

Metabolic tolerance

drug tolerance resulting from changes that reduce the amount of drug getting to its site of action

33

Functional tolerance

Drug tolerance resulting in the changes that reduce drug reactivity of the sites of action

34

Functional tolerance to psychoactive drugs can result from...

Adaptive neural changes-
-reduce the number of receptors for it
-decrease efficiency of the binding of existing receptors
-diminish the impact of receptors binding to the activity of the cell

35

Withdrawal syndrome

Physiological reaction of the body that is triggered from sudden elimination after significant amounts of a drug has been in the body for a period of time

36

With drawl can be produced by the same neural changes that produce ____
Why?

Drug tolerance
Because it has the opposite effect of the drug

37

What is the physiological effects of withdrawing

exposure to a drug produces compensatory (reducing) changes in the nervous system that offset the drugs affect and produce tolerance.
Then when the drug is eliminated from the body, these compensatory neural changes- without the drug to offset them- manifest themselves as withdrawal symptoms that are opposite to the initial effects of the drug.

38

What produces greater withdrawal effect?

longer exposure to greater doses followed by more rapid elimination produces greater withdrawal effects

39

Drug addicts

Drug users who continue a drug despite its effects on their health and social life and their inability to stop using it.

40

Contingent drug tolerance

demonstrations that drug tolerance actually develops only to drug effects that are actually experienced

41

continued drug tolerance

refers to demonstrations the tolerance effects are maximally expressed only when a drug is administered in the same situation in which has previously been administered

42

three stages involved in the development in of an addiction

initial drug taking
habitual drug taking
drug craving and repeated relapse

43

Novelty seeking

Behavioral trait linked to increased tendency for initial drug taking

44

Three causes of relapse

Stress
Drug priming (a single exposure to a formerly abused drug)
Exposure to cues (people, time, place and objects)