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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (192):
1

How do we find the rate of air flow

Difference in pressure between atmosphere and intra-alveolar pressure
divided by the resistance of airways

2

What causes air to move into the lungs

when the pressure in the lungs is less than the pressure of the atmosphere

3

How does the diaphragm cause inspiration

the diaphragm contracts decreasing pressure in the thorax, causes the lungs to expand, which causes the pressure to go down, and air rushes in

4

How does the diaphragm affect inspiration

it relaxes, increasing pressure in the thorax, which causes the lungs to shrink, increasing pressure, forcing air out

5

What is boyles law

p1*v1 = p2*v2
The greater the pressure the less the volume
the less the volume the greater the pressure
less pressure = more volume
more volume = less pressure

6

How do the intercostals affect breathing

contraction leads to increased rib cage = increase volume of lungs = decrease pressure = inspiration

relaxation = decreased rib cage size = less volume in lungs = more pressure = expiration

7

contraction of the abdominals does what to inspiration and expiration

contraction leads to expiration, relaxation leads to inspiration.

8

What is pneumothorax, what happens

when air gets into the plural cavity, it gets rid of the negative intrapleural pressure in the pleural sac. so the increase in pressure there causes the lung to collapse

9

what is the primary way to regulate air flow into the lungs

the radius of the conducting airway

10

what controls the radius of the conducting airway

the autonomic nervous system
sympathetic - relaxation of smooth muscle = bronchodialation
parasympathetic = contraction of smooth muscle = bronchoconstriction

11

What is compliance

distensability - the ease with which lungs expand under pressure
(The lungs must be compliant for inspiration)

12

What is elasticity

Tendancy to return to size after being stretched
(lungs must be elastic for expiration)

13

What is it that makes the lungs elastic

the high content of elastin in the lungs

14

how often are the lungs under elastic tension

constantly, it increases with inspiration and decreases with expiration but it never goes away

15

what happens as lungs become less compliant

they become harder to expand and therefor it requires more work to inflate them

16

What is surfactant

A fluid secreted by the lungs that decreases the surface tension within the alveoli

17

Where does surfactant come from

type II alveolar cells

18

What is the result of surfactant decreasing the surface tension within the alveoli

it leads to increased compliance and decreased tendency to recoil

19

Why is it bad to not have surfactat

the lungs become really hard to inflate because of low compliance, the lungs will often collapse

20

What is respiratory distress syndrome

surfactant is produced late in fetal developpment, so often premature infants don't have enough surfactant and thier lungs are hard to inflate and often collapse

21

What is a spirogram

The thing that measures lung volumes, inspiration and expiration

22

What is tidal volume TV

the amount of air inspired and expired during normal breathing (Middle portion on spirogram)

23

What is inspiratory reserve volume IRV

how much more you could breath in more than how much you normally do ( big peak )

24

What is expiratory reserve volume ERV

how much more you could breath out than you normally do. (big dip)

25

What is residual volume (RV)

the difference between 0 volume in the lungs and how much you have when you do a maximal expiration. (between bottom of graph and low dip)

26

What is Inspiratory capacity IC

how much you can breath in, includes tidal volume and max inspiratory volume (IRV + TV)

27

What is Vital capacity VC

the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled ( tidal volume + IRV + ERV)

28

What is functional reserve capacity FRC

the difference between no volume in the lungs to the bottom of tidal volume ( ERV + RV)

29

what is total lung capacity

the total amount of air the lungs can hold, from 0 to top of max inspiration (IRV + TV + ERV + RV)

30

What is FEV1

Forced expiratory volume
the maximum amount of air that can be expired in one second after max inspiration

31

What is anatomical dead space

the air passageways (150 ml)

32

what is minute respiratory volume
and how do you find it

the amount of air inhaled or exhaled during one minute of breathing
MRV = TV * Rate of breathing

33

what is minute alveolar ventilation

the amount of new air entering the alveoli per minute

34

how do you find minute alveolar ventilation

MAV = Rate * (TV - Dead space)

rate is # of breaths per minute

35

what happens to minute alveolar ventilation after exercise

it increases

36

What is obstructive lung disease

an increase in resistance in air pathways
causes dificulty in expiration

37

What are two types of obstructive lung diseases

Asthma
Chronic Obstructive pulmanory disease (COPD)

38

What is asthma

airway obstruction due to inflammation, mucous secretion, brachoconstriction

39

what can cause asthma

allergic reaction
exercise
infection

40

What are the two main types of COPD

Emphysema
Chronic Bromchitis

41

what is emphysema

desctuction of alveoli = larger but fewer alveoli
this leads to decreased area for gas exchange and can lead to the bronchiolies collapsing

(caused by smoking)

42

What is chronic bronchitis

lower airways are chronically inflammed
airways swell, thicken and produce mucus. the mucus doesn't move because the cillia are damaged

(Caused by smoking, pollution, and allergins)

43

what does obstructive lung diseases do to the spirometer

it decreases FEV1, and just ERV

44

What do restrictive lung diseases do to the spirometer

they decrease IRV, FEV1 is normal

45

what do restrictive lung diseases do

they decrease compliance and make inspiration dificult

46

What is an example of a restrictive lung disease

Pulmonary fibrosis

47

what is pulmonary fibrosis

it's caused by inhaling smoke, pollution, and irritants and it causes scar tissue to build up in the lungs. this decreases compliance and diffusion of gasses

48

how much of our energy expenditure is used for quiet breathing

3%

49

When is energy expenditure for breathing increased

when pulmonary compliance is decreased (NRDS)
When resistance is increased (COPD)
When elastic recoil decreases (EMPHYSEMA)
when more ventilation is needed (exercise)

50

What is partial pressure

the amount of pressure each substance is contributing to the whole pressure

51

how to calculate partial pressure

take the percentage .05 and times it by the total pressure

52

What does the dorsal respiration group do

it stimulates the phrenic to incite breathing

53

what does the ventral respiration group do

it helps in breathing when its heavy

54

What does the central pattern generator do

it helps build the breathing rythym

55

what does the pontine respiratory group do

helps transistion between inspiration and expiration

56

what receptors are the most important in regulating breathing rate

chemoreceptors

57

what are the chemicals that are the most important in signaling to help regulate breathing rate

CO2 and H+

58

What are pulmonary receptors for

detect irritants - leads to caughing
to prevent excessive stretching

59

during normal expiration what fraction of lung volume is exchanged

1/7

60

what are the two ways to transport O in the blood

It can bind to hemoglobin, or it can be dissolved in the blood

61

What is oxygen carrying capacity

how much O the blood can hold

62

how does Hemoglobin affect the oxygen carrying capacity

each molecule of hemoglobin can carry some Oxygen, more hemoglobin = more oxygen

63

how does the % satuation of HB change

the higher the pressure of O in the blood the higher the %saturation of HB

64

how do you calculate the oxygen content of blood

you find the oxygen carrying capacity (how much each molecule of HB can hold)
how much HB there is in the blood then figure out the %saturation of HB and multiply capacity by % saturation

65

What is the Bohr effect

it states that when the CO2 pressure increases ( or the H+) the HB will release % satureation of HB by oxygen.

66

What are the three types of CO2 transport in blood

1. DIssolved in the blood (9%)
2. as Bicarbonate (64%)
3. as carbaminohemoglobin (27%)

67

what is the function of carbonic anhydrase and where is it locate

it's located in the blood and it turns CO2 to Bicarbonate and the other carbaminohemoglobin and vice-verse to dissolve it in the blood or allow it to be realeased

68

what are the three factors in blood that are important in breathing regulation

H+
CO2
Low O2

69

where in the CNS is breathing controlled

medulla oblongata and pons

70

what is the hering Bruer reflex

it prevents the over inflation of the lungs

71

What is the functional unit of the kidney

the nephron

72

What is a juxtamedullary nephron

they have a long loop of henle,
important in urine concentration

73

what is a cortical nephron

has a short loop of henle

74

What are the 4 basic renal processes

Glomerular filtration
tubular reabsorption
tubular secretion
excretion

75

what happens to fluid filtered by the glomerulus

it passes through
the glomerular capillary wall
the basement membrane
inner layer of bowmans capsule

76

What is the glomerular capillary wall like

more permiable to water and solutes than anywhere in the body

77

What is the basement membrane like

gelatinous layer, acellular

78

what is the inner layer of bowmans capsule like

has podocytes that encircle the glomerular capillaries and form slit pores

79

what are the four forces that determine glomerular filtration pressure

bowmans capsule hydrostatic pressure
glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure
and both have osmotic pressure

80

What are the 3 factors that influence glomerular filtration rate

Glomerular Filtration pressure (GFP)
Renal plasma flow (RPF)

81

what is renal plasma flow

how many ml of plasma go through the kidney

82

how do you get the filtration fraction

GFR/RPF, how much is filtered over how much goes through

83

how is GFR regulated

largely by GFP, most pressures can't be changed, but glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure can be

84

how is the glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure controlled

intrinsic and extrinsic factors

85

What are the two types of intrinsic control of GFR

Myogenic regulation
tubeoglomerular feedback

86

What is myogenic regulation as intrinsic conrtol of GFR

the muscles on the afferent artery squeeze down and don't let as much blood to the glomerulus

87

What is tubeoglomerular feedback as intrinsic control of GFR

the macula densa cells detect changes in GFR
high GFR leads the macula dense cells to release adenosine, which leads to constriction of the afferent arterioles = decreased blood flow = decreased GFR

88

What is extrinsic control of GFR

its most important when MAP gets way off (dehydration, hemorrhage)
MAP increases to decrease urine output, which decreases blood through to the kidneys

89

What is filtered load

the quantity of a solute that is filtered per unit of time. take concentration of substance in blood and times it by GFR

90

what is tubular reapsorption

when the water and solutes filtered by the glomerulus enter back into the peritubular capillaries

91

What are the two types of tubular reapsorption

Active = things are transported against their gradient back into the blood
(glucose, AA's, NA+ proximal tubules) ( NA+ distal tubules)
Passive = things move down thier gradients back into the blood
(H2O, cl-, Urea proximal)(H20 distal)

92

What is transport (tubular) maximun

it's the max amount of a solute that can be reabsorbed, if the filtered load is greater that the transport maximum, some of the solute will be excreted

93

how does it work when transport maximum is exceeded

all of the transporters are occupied so all of the solute can't be reabsorbed

94

What is tubular secretion

its the active transport of substances in the blood into the lumen of the kidney tubules

95

What can be removed from the blood stream by tubular secretion

H+, K+, and drugs

96

What is plasma clearance

measure of the rate at which substances are cleared from the plasma

97

how is plasma clearance expressed

volume of plasma completely cleared of the substance per minute

98

how is plasma clearance found

rate of urine formation * urine concentration / plasma concentration

99

how can filtration fraction be determined by inulin and PAH clearance

Inulin clearance / PAH clearance

100

How does the Renin-angiotensin system work

1) activated by a drop in blood pressure,
2) stimulates the JG cells to release renin.
3) renin turns angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
4) angiotensin converting enzyme turns Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II

101

What does angiotensin II do

1. it causes vasoconstriction = increase in TPR (increases BP)
2. it stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone (holds sodium in blood, which because of osmotic pressure holds more water in blood) = increase in BP
2.

102

How does aldosterone increase Na in blood

it opens up the Na/K channels on the luminal membrane. so more Na is resorbed in the kidney

103

What are the 4 ways that angiotensin II affects blood pressure

1. Vasoconstriction of the systemic arterioles
2. increase aldosterone in the adrenal cortex
3. increase in ADH secretion from post. pituitary
4. increase in thirst stimulation

104

Why does the body need to modify urine concentration

because if you drank a lot of water and it didn't modify concentration, then it would throw off plasma volume, blood pressure

105

what are the steps involved in concentrating urine

1. long loops of henle establish osmotic gradient
(greater from cortex to medulla)
2. Preservation of the gradient by vasa recta
3. gradient dependent water absorption through the collecting ducts

106

How is the osmotic gradient established

by countercurrent multiplication

107

how does permiability of the loops of henle change

descending limb is permeable to water, not NaCl
Ascending limb is permeable to NaCl, not water

108

what happens to water and Na concentration through the tubes

descending limb water leaves and the solute becomes more concentrated. then as it goes up the ascending limb the water can't enter but the Na leaves until it gets low.

109

What is the affect of ADH on urine concentration

it makes the collecting tubule permiable to water

110

what happens to ADH during de hydration and too much water

dehydration stimulates ADH to be released, which causes water to leave the collecting tubule and urine to be very concentrated
too much water blocks ADH release so that water can't leave collecting duct and the urine is very dilute

111

what is vasopressin

ADH

112

Where is ADH from

posterior pituitary

113

What is aquaporin

they are water channels that are opened up by ADH

114

What is micturition

urination/ emptying the bladder

115

how is micturition controlled

1. too much pee = walls expanding = sets off stretch receptors
2. that leads to cause the opening of the internal urethral sphincter
parasympathetic = contraction of detruser
sympathetic = relaxation of internal sphincter
3. then we control the external urethral sphincter

116

What digestive processes happen in the mouth

Motility
Saliva Secretion

117

What is motility in the mouth

chewing on food that breaks it down

118

what are the functions of the saliva

moisten and lubricate the food
salivary amylase starts to break down starch
antibacterial action
solvent to allow for taste
buffers acid

119

does any absorption take place in the mouth

no, except for some drugs

120

what is the motility in the stomach

stores food, the contraction of smooth muscle mixes and grinds the food into chyme

121

what is secreted in the stomach

mucus
pepsinogen
HCL
intrinsic factor
gastrin
somatosatin
histamine

122

What is the digestion that takes place in the stomache

salivary amylase continues to break down starch
pepsinogen breaks down proteins

123

What is the absorption that takes place in the stomach

none, except some drugs

124

how is gastric emptying regulated

1. Stretching leads to increased gastric contractivity
2. the fluidity of gastric contents become greater
3. fat in the duodenum is the most potent inhibitor of gastric emptying
4. acid in the duodenum, it has to be neutralized before it can empty more in
5. Hypertonicity in the duodenum
6. emotion and pain
7. distention of duodenum inhibits motility

125

what is the most potent inhibitor of gastric emptying

fat in the duodenum

126

what do parietal cells do

Secrete HCL and intrinsic factor

127

what do Chief cells do

secrete pepsinogen

128

what is the function of HCL in the stomach

activates pepsinogen
breaks down connective tissue and food particles
denatures proteins
kills microorganisms

129

what is the function of intrinsic factor

important in vitamin b12 absorption

130

what is the function of pepsinogen

it is cleaved to pepsin by HCL
pepsin then cleaves more pepsinogen
breaks proteins down into peptide fragments

131

What is the motility of the small intestine

segmentation = mixes and propels chyme
migrating motility complex = cleans between meals

132

What is the secretion of the small intestine

juice of the intestine protects and lubricates intestine and water (needed by hydrolysis)
no digestive enzymes

133

What is the digestion of the small intestine

major site of digestion
accompanied by pancreatic digestive enzymes, secretions, bile and brush border

134

What is the absorption of the small intestine

the site of food absorption

135

What does the pancrease secrete

1. bicarbonate
2. proteolytic enzymes
3. pancreatic amylase
4. pancreatic lypase

136

what is the function of bicarbonate

neutralizes acidic chyme because:
acid inhibits pancreatic enzyme activity
protects the small intestine from damage

137

what is the function of the proteoltic enzymes

they are secreted inactive, then converted to active forms by enterokinase and trypsin (trypsin is a converted proteolytic enzyme that goes and converts the others)

138

what are the functions of pancreatic amylase

break down polysaccharides into maltose

139

what is the function of pancreatic lipase

breaks down triglycerides into monoglycerides

140

What happens when acid is in the duodenum

secretin is released from the duodenum which leads to release of bicarbonate, which neutralizes it

141

What happens when there is fat in the doudenum

CCK is released from the duodenal mucosa, which causes the release of pancreatic enzymes which digest the fat

142

what is the function of bile

- excretion of bilirubin
- emulsification of fat (breaks down the fat globs)

143

where is bile from

continuously made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder

144

how is the hormonal release of bile controlled

Fat stimulates the secretion of CCK
CCK stimulates bile to be released from the GB

145

what is the brush border

folds, villi, microvili all increase the surface area for absorption. but the brushborder is specifically made by the microvilli

146

what does the brush border have in it

enterokinase, maltase, sucrase, lactase, aminopeptidases

147

how is the digestion of carbs done (whole process)

Starches - polysaccharides in mouth
polysaccharides - disaccharides in doudenum
dissaccharides - monosaccharides on brush border

148

Monosach absorption

(secondary active transport) into cell, facilitated diffusion into blood

149

How are proteins digested (whole process)

broken down by pepsin and pancreatic enzymes into small amino acid chains
then broken down into individual amino acids by brush border and absorbed

150

how are fats absorbed

monoglycerides are paired up with free fatty acids in the brush border cell, then they are exocytosed into the lymph

151

what is the motility in the large intestine

haustral contractions mix feces, and mass movements propel the feces long distances

152

what stimulates mass movements

the gastrocolic reflex, food entering the stomach

153

what are the secretions of the large intestine

alkaline mucus that lubricates and facilitates the passage of feces, sodium bicarbonate neutralizes acid from bacteria

154

What is the digestion of the large intestine

none

155

what is the absorption of the large intestine

salt and water

156

how does the defication reflex go

feces enters rectum and stretches it
that initiates defication reflex
internal anal sphincter relaxes, and muscle of rectum and sigmoid colon contract.
external anal sphincter is voluntarily controlled, when it opens we have defication

157

what are the 3 main types of chemical messagers

autocrine/paracrine
neurotransmitters
hormones

158

what is a paracrine/autocrine

messanger to its own cell, or to a neighbor cell

159

What is a neurotransmitter

released from a neuron

160

what is a hormone

released from endocrine glands into the blood
long distance signal
carried by blood to target cells where they regulate cell functions

161

what are the three categories of hormones

1. peptide hormone (most common)
2. Amino acids, or modified amino acids
3. steroids

162

what are some peptide hormones

pituitary hormones
angiotensin
insulin
glucagon

163

What are some amino acid hormones

epinephrine, thyroid hormones

164

what are some steroid hormones

aldosterone, estradiol

165

how are hormones transported

peptide - usually just in the blood
steroid and thyroid hormones - bound by a carrier protein

166

how do steroid and thyroid hormones work

they bind nuclear receptors and those bind DNA, this causes altered protein expression which makes the desired response

167

how do peptide and catecholamines work

they bind to cell surface receptors, these then send signals which activate and deactivate all sorts of things (enzymes, channels)

168

What hormones are released from the posterior pituitary

vasopressin
oxytocin

169

tell me about vasopressin

it is synthsized in the hypotalamus
secreted from the posterior pituitary
osmoreceptors stimulate its release
inhibited by blood vessel strech receptors

170

what are the functions of vasopressin

vasoconstriction
increases water reapsorption

171

What stimulates oxytocin release

mechanoreceptors at nipple and cervix
infants cry
stress inhibits

172

what does oxytocin do

stimulates the contraction of the uterus during childbirth
stimulates milk ejection

173

what hormones come from the hypothalamus

PRH
PIH
TRH
CRH
GHRH
GHIH
GNRH

174

what do the hormones from the hypothalamus do

they stimulate or inhibit the release of the hormones from the anterior pituitary

175

What are the hormones of the ANterior pituitary

prolactin
TSH
ACTH
GH
LH
FSH

176

Where is growth hormone from

the anterior pituitary

177

what does GH target and what does it do there

targets most tissues
promotes protein synthesis and growth
promotes lipolysis
promotes increase of blood glucose

178

how does GH work

it causes cell to differentiate and the liver to secrete IGF1

179

What is dwarfism

hyposecretion of GH
small weak muscle
increased subcutaneous fat

180

What is gigantism

hypersecretion of GH before growth plates close

181

what is acromegaly

hyper secretion of GH after growth plates have closed

182

What is TSH

its a hormone from the Ant pit
stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormones, and the growth of the thyroid

183

How is TSH controlled

Stimulated by TRH and inhibited by thyroid hormones

184

T4 vs t3

most of the thyroid hormone released is T4, but most in then converted to T3 because it's more active

185

what do t3/t4 do

increase metabolic rate and heat production
stimulates protein synthesis and growth

186

t4 participates in negative feed back

yep

187

what is hypothyroidism

thyroid gland failure due to no TRH or TSH, or iodine deficiency

188

what is cretinism

hypothyroidism
low metabolic rate = growth and mental retardation, hypothermia

189

What is Myxedema

hypothyroidism in adults
puffy eyes
low BMR
dry rough skin

190

what happens with low iodine

endemic goiter because no T4 is made but TSH still tells the thyroid to grow, T4 can't stop it

191

What is hyperthyroidism

Excess TSH or TRH
causes a thyroid tumor

192

what is graves disease

hyperthyroidism
TSI bind to TSH sites
goiter
bulging eyes
muscle weakness