Flashcards in test 3 Deck (37):
Organic molecules store______ energy in their______ bonds
What is the minimum number of nucleotides in a gene that codes for the synthesis of the 319 amino acid PRK1 in a eukaryotic cell?
more than 957 nucleotides
What value for delta G ( a positive of negative value) would you expect for the ATP synthesis from ADP
+ Delta G
In chemical reactions, most of the entropy increase occurs as _____
in cellular respiration, glucose is ______ to CO2 and oxygen is _____ to water
which of the following molecules has the least potential energy that can be used by a cell?
The reduction of NAD to form NADH during glycolysis requires
enzymes in the metabolic pathway and glucose
Why does a 10oz steak contain potential energy
it contains protein
How do cells in the root of plants obtain ATP?
they metabolize sugar transported from leaves using glycolysis and respiration
Glycolysis is a series of chemical reactions by which the cell can obtain ATP. NAD+ has a crucial role in the reactions of glycolysis by:
accepting electrons from glucose so that glucose becomes partially oxidized to pyruvate
During glycolysis, ATP is made from
ADP and phosphate
at the end of glycolysis, the carbon atoms present in the starting glucose molecule are in form of
two pyruvate molecules
Suppose you discover conditions in which you could grow a eukaryotic cell that has no mitochondria. What properties might you expect to find in that cell?
it would not require oxygen to grow
where in a cell are the enzymes that mediate glycolysis located?
what do yeast metabolize that leads to the production of carbon dioxide when bread rises?
protein and carbohydrates in the flour
where in a cell are the enzymes that mediate the citric acid cycle located?
following the citric acid cycle but before the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, most of the energy from the original glucose molecule is found in ______
When fats are used as an energy source, the faux acids are broke down to acetyl-CoA. That means that fats bypass the reaction of _______ the reactions of __________ and enter the respiratory pathway at ________
glycolysis; the citric acid cycle
Enzymes change the _____ of a reaction
enzymes in lysosomes have pH optimum that is lower than the enzymes in the soluble cytoplasm in your cell. Of what advantage could that be to a cell?
the enzyme would be inactive if lysosomal membranes broke in a cell and released the enzymes
The electron transport chain is part of
the proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport chain are:
embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain is
respiration depends on "chemiosmosis". What does this mean?
Protons diffuse from a region of higher concentration (between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes) to a region of lower concentration (the mitochondria matrix) and turn the ATPsynthase molecule to phosphorylate ATP
How does CO2 exit the mitochondrion
by diffusion across the inner and outer membrane lipid bilayers
What is the difference between a hydrogen ion and a proton
there is no difference
if oxygen is unavailable, predict what happens to the citric cid cycle
it stops because the supplies of NAD and FAD become depleted
If gramicidin added to an actively respiring muscle cell, how would it affect the rate of electron transport, proton pumping, and ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation
protons would diffuse back through the channel down their electrochemical gradient and the proton gradient would dissipate
The liver cell in a animal have 24 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are present in the motile sperm of this animal
During metaphase of meiosis 2
sister chromatids are linked by centromeres
microtubules are responsible for pulling chromosomes to the spindle poles during meiosis and mitosis. If most microtubule assembly occurs at the kinetochore, with which end of a microtubule is the kinetochore associated?
the plus end
Which of these structures break during the transition between metaphase and anaphase of meiosis 1
during mitosis, at which stage in the cell cycle are two sister chromatids linked by a centromere
Cdks are important in the regulation of the cell cycle. They carry out their function by
phosphorylating target proteins
which major checkpoint delays the cell cycle when DNA replication is incomplete
Cyclins are important regulators of cell division. What kind of molecule is a "cyclin"