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Flashcards in test 3 Deck (37):
1

Organic molecules store______ energy in their______ bonds

potential covalent

2

What is the minimum number of nucleotides in a gene that codes for the synthesis of the 319 amino acid PRK1 in a eukaryotic cell?

more than 957 nucleotides

3

What value for delta G ( a positive of negative value) would you expect for the ATP synthesis from ADP

+ Delta G

4

In chemical reactions, most of the entropy increase occurs as _____

heat

5

in cellular respiration, glucose is ______ to CO2 and oxygen is _____ to water

oxidized; reduced

6

which of the following molecules has the least potential energy that can be used by a cell?

ADP

7

The reduction of NAD to form NADH during glycolysis requires

enzymes in the metabolic pathway and glucose

8

Why does a 10oz steak contain potential energy

it contains protein

9

How do cells in the root of plants obtain ATP?

they metabolize sugar transported from leaves using glycolysis and respiration

10

Glycolysis is a series of chemical reactions by which the cell can obtain ATP. NAD+ has a crucial role in the reactions of glycolysis by:

accepting electrons from glucose so that glucose becomes partially oxidized to pyruvate

11

During glycolysis, ATP is made from

ADP and phosphate

12

at the end of glycolysis, the carbon atoms present in the starting glucose molecule are in form of

two pyruvate molecules

13

Suppose you discover conditions in which you could grow a eukaryotic cell that has no mitochondria. What properties might you expect to find in that cell?

it would not require oxygen to grow

14

where in a cell are the enzymes that mediate glycolysis located?

cytoplasm

15

what do yeast metabolize that leads to the production of carbon dioxide when bread rises?

protein and carbohydrates in the flour

16

where in a cell are the enzymes that mediate the citric acid cycle located?

mitochondria

17

following the citric acid cycle but before the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, most of the energy from the original glucose molecule is found in ______

NADH

18

When fats are used as an energy source, the faux acids are broke down to acetyl-CoA. That means that fats bypass the reaction of _______ the reactions of __________ and enter the respiratory pathway at ________

glycolysis; the citric acid cycle

19

Enzymes change the _____ of a reaction

rate

20

enzymes in lysosomes have pH optimum that is lower than the enzymes in the soluble cytoplasm in your cell. Of what advantage could that be to a cell?

the enzyme would be inactive if lysosomal membranes broke in a cell and released the enzymes

21

The electron transport chain is part of

oxidative phosphorylation

22

the proteins of the mitochondrial electron transport chain are:

embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane

23

The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain is

oxygen

24

respiration depends on "chemiosmosis". What does this mean?

Protons diffuse from a region of higher concentration (between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes) to a region of lower concentration (the mitochondria matrix) and turn the ATPsynthase molecule to phosphorylate ATP

25

How does CO2 exit the mitochondrion

by diffusion across the inner and outer membrane lipid bilayers

26

What is the difference between a hydrogen ion and a proton

there is no difference

27

if oxygen is unavailable, predict what happens to the citric cid cycle

it stops because the supplies of NAD and FAD become depleted

28

If gramicidin added to an actively respiring muscle cell, how would it affect the rate of electron transport, proton pumping, and ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation

protons would diffuse back through the channel down their electrochemical gradient and the proton gradient would dissipate

29

The liver cell in a animal have 24 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are present in the motile sperm of this animal

12

30

During metaphase of meiosis 2

sister chromatids are linked by centromeres

31

microtubules are responsible for pulling chromosomes to the spindle poles during meiosis and mitosis. If most microtubule assembly occurs at the kinetochore, with which end of a microtubule is the kinetochore associated?

the plus end

32

Which of these structures break during the transition between metaphase and anaphase of meiosis 1

synaptonemal complexes

33

during mitosis, at which stage in the cell cycle are two sister chromatids linked by a centromere

M phase

34

Cdks are important in the regulation of the cell cycle. They carry out their function by

phosphorylating target proteins

35

which major checkpoint delays the cell cycle when DNA replication is incomplete

G2 checkpoint

36

Cyclins are important regulators of cell division. What kind of molecule is a "cyclin"

protein

37

Cyclin-dependent kinases are present throughout the cel cycle. Why don't they continuously stimulate cell division

Cdks are only active when cyclin molecules are synthesized during the cell cycle