Test 4 Review Pain and Senses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 4 Review Pain and Senses Deck (41):
1

Stimulus

trigger that stimulates receptor
meaning depends on reception and processing

2

reception

process of receiving stimuli from nerve endings
occurs through receptors

3

thermoreceptors

temperature

4

proprioceptors

skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, sense position

5

photoreceptors

light in retina

6

chemoreceptors

in taste buds (taste); olfactory epithelium (smell)

7

mechanoreceptors

skin, hair follicles (pressure, touch, vibration)

8

hair cells

ear (cochlea) detect sound waves; vestibular apparatus for balance

9

perception

ability to interpret sensory impulses; give meaning to impulses

10

perception is affected by

location of receptor, number of receptors activated; frequency of action potentials and changes in all three

11

arousal

composed of consciousness and alertness
mediated by reticular activating system (RAS)

12

arousal affected by

environment
medicatations

13

response to sensations are affected by what factors

intensity of stimulus
contrasting stimuli
adaptation to stimuli
previous experience

14

the response to sensations requires people to be

alert and receptive to the stimulation

15

What do these factors affect?

age/stage of life
culture
illness
medications
stress
personality
lifestyle

16

presbyopia

inability to focus on close objects

17

conductive hearing loss is where the ___ ___ are blocked in the ___ ear; can't reach the cochlea of inner ear

sound waves
middle ear

18

sensorineural hearing loss is a problem with either the ___ ___ or ___ ___ or ___ ___

inner ear
sensory organ (cochlea and associated structures)
vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII)

19

mixed hearing loss

combo of conductive and sensorineural

20

glasgow coma scale measures

a measure of the unconscious client
eye opening response, verbal response, motor response

21

define pain

unpleasant sensory/emotional experience; can have destructive effects and can warn of potential injury; multidimensional experience

22

superficial pain comes from the ...

skin or subcutaneous tissue

23

visceral pain

deep pain; most often in abdominal cavity, cranium or thorax (tight, pressure or pain)

24

somatic pain

originates in the ligaments, tendons, nerves, blood vessels and bones (usually achy or tender)

25

referred pain

pain distant from the site hurts--like with a heart attack, left arm or jaw

26

radiating pain

begins at one site and localizes to another site--like with sore throat and ear

27

phantom pain

pain perceived to originate from an area that has been surgically removed

28

psychogenic pain

pain believed to arise from the mind; no cause physically; effects sleep, eating, etc.

29

nociceptive pain

pain receptors respond to stimuli that are potentially damaging (trauma, surgery or inflammation)

30

neuropathic pain

chronic pain due to nerve damage

31

acute pain

less than 6 months

32

chronic pain

more than 6 months; cause depression, anxiety, risk for independence

33

intractable pain

chronic and resistable to meds and relief

34

transduction of pain

activation of nociceptors by stimuli
(mechanical-external forces where pressure and friction occur; thermal--extreme hot or cold; chemical--internal or external--you can have lemon juice on cut or ischemia pain)

35

transmission of pain

conduction of pain message to spinal cord
(A-delta fibers-transmit fast pain impulses; C fibers transmit slow pain impulses)

36

pain is perceived in the
perception deals with ___ and ___

cortex
threshold and tolerance
point which brain recognizes and defines the stimulus as pain-threshold
duration or intensity of pain that a person can endure-tolerance

37

pain modulation

changes the pain perception by either facilitating or inhibiting pain signals thru the endogenous analgesia system and the gate control mechanism)

38

gate control theory of pain

perception of pain does not occur by direct stiulation of only nociceptors; instead pain is perceived by the interplay between two different kinds of fibers; those that produce pain and those that inhibit pain

39

different pain scales

visual analogue scale (VAS)- 0-10
numeric rating scale
simple descriptor scale--list of words; what ifts pain?
Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale

40

nonpharmalogical pain management includes:
___ stimulation
___ and rest
___-___ interventions

cutaneous stimulation (electrical; acupuncture; acupressure; massage; heat and cold; contralateral stimulation)
immobilization and rest
cognitive-behavioral interventions (distractions; progressive muscle relaxation; guided imagery; hypnosis; therapeutic touch; humor; journaling)

41

pharmacological pain management includes

nonopioid analgesics; opioid analgesics; anjuvant analgesics (anticonvulsants; antianxiety; antidepressants; antihistamine; antiemetics)