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Identify two other physical features of this coastline.

(1); cliffed coastline (1); bay (1); undulating (1);
headland (1); forest (1); upland/highland coastline


Suggest one way in which vegetation can affect this coastline.

reduces mass movement (1); minimises human access;
roots bind soil


What is meant by the term sea-level change?

level of sea in relation to land changes (1) over a
longer time period (1). Award 1 mark for relevant points
e.g. normal/average sea level higher/lower (1); global
sea level rises/falls (1) isostatic/eustatic change


Outline two impacts that sea-level changes can have on coastlines.

coastal flooding (1); submergence of low lying land (1);
landforms such as rias/fiords (1); raised beaches (1);
coral reefs (1); relict cliffs (1) ...
river valleys flooded by
rising sea level (1) to form ria (1)... or an extended
e.g. low lying Maldive islands (1) disappear with rising
sea level (1) or a human impact e.g. coastal flooding
(1) > loss of homes/damaged infrastructure (1)
increased erosion (1)...


Explain how different physical processes operate along a coastline.

key processes include wave erosion; transportation;
deposition; longshore drift; sub-aerial weathering; river
sediment transport ...
how processes as
above work to constantly change a stretch of coastline.
They operate in both isolation e.g.
 erosion breaking down coastal rocks leading to
 waves depositing to grow beaches
and together as a natural system e.g. longshore drift
depositing in one place and eroding in another; mass
movement providing material for beaches; erosion of cliffs
producing material for building beaches; how wave action
may bring sediments shorewards to form offshore bars and
beaches ... The focus is on a multi-process approach with
“different” being a key word.


Identify one short-term impact of this hazard event. ( earthquake)

building collapse; homelessness (1); personal injury (1);
communications damage (1); disruption to services (1) ...
N.B. short-term and observed/implied


Suggest how the scale of this event might have affected its long-term impact.

large scale; major ... (1). Credit with 2nd mark where
long-term implications indicated e.g. severe consequences
for long time (1); financial loss (1); economic slowdown
(1); loss of tourism affects GDP (1).


What is meant by the term weather conditions?

atmospheric conditions (1) for a short period of time (1).
Part definitions e.g. lists of weather elements (1); what
the air is like/doing


Outline two methods of monitoring weather conditions.

Credit each valid instrument identified with 1 mark e.g.
rain gauge (1); radar readings (1); meteorological
sensors (1); satellite detectors (1); hand-held
electronic devices (1); visual judgements (1) ...
nd mark in each case for an outline of the method
stated e.g. reading instruments (1) amount of rainfall in
collecting jar in gauge measured daily (1);
meteorological sensors (1) detect pressure changes and
send value to computer (1)


Explain how tropical storms are caused.

to indicate
that tropical storms are huge spinning areas of low pressure
(cyclones) bringing strong winds and torrential rain and
commonly known as hurricanes, typhoons ...
to indicate
that tropical storms are huge spinning areas of low pressure
(cyclones) bringing strong winds and torrential rain and
commonly known as hurricanes, typhoons ...


Discuss the challenges of managing a tectonic event in one named country.

Named country .............................................................................................

refer to the difficulties of doing this
i.e. of risk assessment, prediction, preparation/adjustment,
A key part of many answers will be to look at the difficulties
of preparing and adjusting to the event e.g.
earthquake preparation involves designing non-collapsible
buildings; strengthening railways and roads; stocks of
emergency supplies ...
volcanic eruption preparation involves evacuation plans,
lava diversion channels, planning controls on building
location ....
Difficulties may be less in HICs with their higher levels of
development, more and better quality management, better
technology and infrastructure, greater governance.


Suggest three reasons why this location was chosen for the Motor Works.

access for transport of car parts (1); easy access for
labour force (1); road transport of finished vehicles to
market (1); flat/level building ground (1); large, open
area (1) ...


What is meant by the term energy efficiency?

the most of energy sources (1) in order to cut down on
waste/reduce consumption (1).
Award 1 mark for partial answers along right lines
e.g. use less energy(1); more economic fuel
consumption (1).


Outline two reasons why energy efficiency is needed.

rising global demand (1); traditional
energy sources non-renewable (1); energy precious (1);
burning non-renewables polluting (1) ...
nd mark available in each case if factor developed into
a full reason/cause e.g.
 rising global demand (1) puts strain on global
energy supply (1)
 traditional energy sources non-renewable (1)
limited in supply and will run out one day (1)


Explain how the economic sectors vary in importance between HICs and LICs.

There is a specification case study on the comparative
sectoral shifts in one HIC and one LIC along the lines of the
Clarke-Fisher model which should inform the inter-country
variations e.g. LICs (pre-industrial society) with their large
primary sector e.g. 70% of workforce, modest secondary
sector e.g. 20% and small tertiary sector e.g. 10%
contrasts with HICs (post-industrial society) with their large
tertiary sector e.g. 50%, modest secondary sector e.g.
30%, small primary sector e.g. 10% and emerging
quaternary sector e.g. 10%.
In an LIC with the following national profile of 25% primary,
30% secondary, 40% tertiary and 5% quaternary one
region might have a 10-40-40-10 split whilst another 50-
15-33-2 breakdown.


Discuss which of the factors affecting the development of one named high-tech
industry is the most important.


Named high-tech industry ............................................................................................................................

Named industries may include pharmaceuticals,
biotechnology, electronic goods, motor vehicles ... with no
named location necessary.
The question is evaluative in nature seeking a consideration
of factors affecting its development i.e. growth of output;
more employees; new locations as business expands ... and
an evaluation of the relative importance of such factors as:

availability of highly-skilled labour; R & D and university-
business links; transport advances both national and

transnational; clustering and external economies;
government policies; economic development and changing
demand; globalisation, supply chains and TNCs ...


Suggest two factors that might have encouraged the depopulation of this island.

remote/ low accessibility (1); poor
service provision (1); limited employment opportunity
(1); high/rising unemployment (1); farming
difficulties/mechanisation (1); limited facilities (1);
harsh weather (1) cheap imports (1)...


What is meant by the term conservation?

for future use (1) or improvement (1).
1 mark answers will be partial e.g. looking after fine
scenery/landscape (1); sustainability (1); keeping
things as they are (1)....


Outline two reasons for conservation in rural environments.

rare habitats (1); attractive landscape (1); threats
from commercial interests (1)
nd marks available for developing it into full reason e.g.
 rare habitats (1) at risk of survival from visitor
numbers (1)
 attractive landscape (1) to encourage tourism
(1) in danger of being spoiled by quarrying (1)


Explain the causes of food shortages.

Food shortage is more common in LICs. Expect the causes

to be associated with :
 food production not meeting demand
 food supply affected by limited and uneven global
distribution systems (distribution barriers)
 fast population increase pushing up demand
 rising incomes in LICs raising demand
 rural-to-urban migration in LICs leaving fewer
 food supply disrupted by conflicts
 globalised food industry with some farming in LICs
for export rather than local consumption
 over-consumption in HICs
 production damaged by weather events
 poor storage


Discuss the main ecological processes affecting the biodiversity of one
named ecosystem.


Named ecosystem .............................................................................................

can be based on any rural or
coastal ecosystem but might expect to see temperate
grassland; mangrove; coral reef; sand dunes ... The
ecological processes identified need to be linked to the
ecosystem’s biodiversity i.e. the number and variety of
living species found in the ecosystem.
Good answers will appreciate the interaction of the
ecosystem’s living e.g. plants ... and non-living e.g. soil ...
components and the series of links in the ecosystem which
depend on each other known as its food chain.
Processes may refer to:
 photosynthesis and the carbon cycle
 food chains, primary producers, primary consumers,
secondary consumers .. and nutrient recycling esp.
 adaptation and succession.
Ecosystems break down with loss of biodiversity if one
component or link changes.


Outline three factors that should be considered when choosing a suitable sampling site for a microclimate investigation.

Credit any valid factor stated with 1 mark. Must include
at least two meteorological consideration for max marks
e.g. different surroundings (1). 2nd mark for this to be
exemplified twice e.g. south-facing aspect (1);
sheltered spot (1); open space (1) ...
Allow 1 mark for valid access or health & safety
consideration e.g. trespass (1); traffic (1) ....
Each valid factor carries a 2nd mark for description re
suitability e.g.
 open space (1) > gives more “natural” reading
for area (1)
 trespass (1) > ensure permission acquired (1)


Describe two sources of secondary information that might be useful in planning a microclimate investigation.

OS map (1); local Met Office station
records (1); local area weather forecast (1); compass
directions (1); historic weather diaries (1); newspaper
reports for area (1) ....
nd marks can be given where purpose of source made
clear e.g.
 OS map (1) gives altitude of site (1)
 compass directions (1) gives aspect of site (1); sites reflecting rock
type in vegetation survey (1)....


Outline each of the three following sampling methods used in
geographical investigations.

Systematic sampling = sample taken in regular way (1)
e.g. every tenth person; every 100 metres (1)...
Random sampling = sample taken based on equal
chance of inclusion for all (1) e.g. using random
numbers table; drawn from a hat (1) ....
Stratified sampling = samples are selected according to
a known characteristic (1) e.g. age-distribution of
population in an opinions survey; sites reflecting rock
type in vegetation survey (1)....


Suggest why one of the sampling methods named in (b)(i) would be appropriate to use in a microclimate investigation.

systematic – no bias (1) by measuring at regular
intervals (1) avoiding need for any personal
judgement (1)
 stratified – good way to achieve
representativeness (1) by basing sampling site
on OS map (1) and pre-fieldwork visits (1)
 random – avoids site selection difficulties (1) by
impersonalising sampling decision (1) no bias (1)


Suggest one possible aim of a microclimate investigation.

 measure weather conditions (1) compare with
another local site (1)
 measure temperature ... (1) compare with Met
Office station recordings for that area (1)


Identify three reasons why a microclimate investigation might not achieve

the aim given in (c)(i).

 accuracy of data collected (1)
 sufficient data collected (1)
 careful data recording (1)
 accuracy of data collation (1) and data
presentation (1)
 reliable analysis and interpretation of findings (1)
 validity of conclusions reached (1)
 realism and practicality of aim (1)
 suitability of sites chosen (1)


Describe the factors to be considered in preparing a questionnaire.

how many questions (1); layout of questionnaire
(1); decide on sample size (1); decide on sample
composition (1) number of questions (1); open (1)
closed (1);
Or award max to 2 well-developed (described) factors
e.g. sample composition (1) > spread of different ages


Identify two health and safety risks of carrying out fieldwork in

urban locations.

traffic accidents (1); mugging/crime (1);
temptations to visit non-fieldwork places (1); getting
lost (1) avoid construction site (1)...


Justify the technique used in Figure 9c to represent the results shown in ITS A GRAPH

Figure 9b.

name graph type (line graph)
between age-groups observable (1); can be ICT-
generated (1); good way to display multiple data sets

(1) ... or one developed/exemplified advantage e.g. easy
to interpret (1) as trends clearly visible (1).
Award up to 2 marks where a valid alternative
technique is identified e.g. compound bar chart (1)
better with grouped rather than continuous data (1).