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Flashcards in Test Four Deck (185):
1

how much heat production is increased during shivering

5%

2

WET relates to

temp as a result of humidity

3

acclimatization

adaptation over a long time period

4

heat loss must match

heat gain

5

what is the equation for body heat gain during exercise

heat produced- heat loss

6

what are the four principles of training

PROS, progression, overload, specificity and reversiblity

7

what are the differences in gender for heat tolerance

very small

8

Dry relates to

ambient temp

9

how much heat required to raise body temp

.83 kcal/kg

10

what are the adaptations during heat acclimation

increased plasma volume, earlier onset of sweating and higher sweat rate, reduced sodium chloride loss in sweat, reduced skin blood flow, increased cellular heat shock proteins

11

acclimation

rapid adaptation to environmental change and tends to be artificial

12

what are the two forms of involuntary heat production

shivering and action of hormones

13

during radiation, how much heat is loss at rest

60%

14

what specificity mean

specific muscles involved, specific energy systems utilized, the way muscles move

15

what is the most important means of heat loss during exercise with evaporation

heat loss at rest

16

which system is more genetically determined

anaerobic

17

can you reach steady state in hot environment

no

18

what is conduction

heat loss due to contact with another surface

19

increase in body temp is directly related to

exercise intensity

20

training can only improve anaerobic how much

to a certain degree based on fast 2x fibers

21

what are the guidelines for dehydration

hydrate before performance, consume 150 -300 ml fluid every 15 to 20 min, ensure adequate rehydration, monitor urine color

22

higher humidity makes it harder to

offload heat

23

normal core temp is

37 degrees celsius

24

VO2 max increases how much with trained atheletes

3 to 5% but it is still an important difference

25

what else in body helps increase heat

muscle mass

26

what is the bodys thermostat

hypothalamus

27

what is required for evaporation

vapor pressure gradient between skin and air

28

what does SAID stand for

specific adaptations to imposed demands

29

what is voluntary heat production

exercise

30

what is the action of hormones during heat production

thyroxine(metabolism stimulating), catecholamines, "nonshivering" hormones

31

during hot environment what do you rule out

radiation and convection

32

heat shock proteins do what

protect cells from thermal injury

33

one liter of sweat results in how much heat loss in kcal

580

34

how to calculate mean skin temp

Tskin= (Tforehead+ chest+ forearm+thigh+calf+abdomen+back)/7

35

how do men and women respond to training systems

similar, exercise prescriptions should be individualized

36

purpose of warm up

increase cardiac output and blood flow to skeletal muscle, increase muscle temp and enzyme activity

37

what is the most important means of heat loss during exercise

evaporation

38

what is the ideal thermal gradient for the body compared to skin

around 4 degrees celsius and the core is warmer than the skin

39

what are two critical things with convection

velocity and density of medium

40

can exercise training in cool conditions promote heat acclimation

yes but the magnitude of the adaptation is less than training in hot/humid environment

41

how does higher net heat loss occur during intense exercise

consistent convective and radiant heat loss, higher evaporative heat loss (increased sweating)

42

palms and head lose how much heat

60%

43

three methods to training to improve aerobic power

interval training, long/slow distance, high intensity, continuous exercise

44

what are superior to water during rehydration

sports drinks

45

how much are mechanically efficient

20 to 30%

46

what is a big factor to how an individual responds to training

genetics
high vs low responders

47

what is a fever

increased body temp above normal

48

the posterior hypothalamus responds to decreased core temp by

shivering and increased NE release, decreased skin blood flow, either increasing heat production or decreasing heat loss

49

exercise performance is impaired in a hot environment because

heat related muscle fatigue, accelerated glycogen metabolism, increased free radical production, reduced muscle blood flow, high brain temp reduces neuromuscular dr

50

what are the four ways of heat loss

radiation, conduction, convection and evaporation

51

what is another method of heat gain that is also heat loss

radiation

52

what is convection

heat transferred to air or water, air particles touch you and take the heat away

53

what does your workout need

provide a significant stimulus that eclipses current abilities (progressive and overloads)

54

high relative humidity reduces

evaporative heat loss, lowers heat loss which increases body temp

55

where is the deep body temp measured

rectum, ear or esophagus

56

what are the mechanisms of heat loss during exercise

evaporation, convection and radiation

57

function of pyrogens

turn on "cold responses" and they change the set point of hypothalamus

58

heat produced that is not lost during exercise is stored where

in body tissues which helps raise body temp

59

core temp is proportional to

active muscle mass

60

increase sweat rate is due to

inability to lose heat

61

what does overload mean

increased capacity of a system in response to training above the level to which it is accustomed, ties in with progression

62

what is the thermal gradient from the body to skin during extreme cold

may be 20 degrees celsius and blood flow greatly reduced to skin

63

how much heat is lost at rest during evaporation

25%

64

evaporation rate depends on

temp and relative humidity (environment), convective currents around the body, amount of skin surface expose

65

what is another temp sensor

ingestible temperature sensor telemetry system

66

how much dehydration can impair performance

2% of body weight

67

what stimulate hypothalamus

temp of skin and core getting close together and the gradient is lost between the two

68

what happens with higher sweat rate

could lose 4-5L/hour and risk of dehydration

69

training improvements is always greater in individual with

lower initial fitness

70

GLOBe relates to

temp as a result of solar radiation

71

what happens if body core temp goes about 45 degrees

destroy proteins and enzymes and lead to death

72

how is the temp of the body throughout the day

always in flux

73

what is heat index

measure of body's perception of how hot it feels

74

how do heat shock proteins protect cells from thermal injury

stabilizing and refolding damaged proteins

75

body temp during arm and leg exercise changes in a linear fashion in regards to

intensity

76

VO2 max increases with how much in sedentary adults

50%

77

what type of heat loss is voluntary

evaporation

78

what is a fever due to

pyrogens

79

what is the equation for heat required to raise body temp 1 degree celsius

specific heat x body mass

80

during exercise, as ambient temp increases

heat production remains constant, lower convective and radiant heat loss, higher evaporation heat loss

81

what can adjust the water intake during exercise

based on environmental conditions

82

what type of fiber is more genetically determined

type 2

83

purpose of cool down

return blood pulled in muscles to central circulation, bring HR down

84

thermal even as exercise intensity increasees

heat production increases, linear increase in body temp, higher net heat loss

85

VO2 max increases with how much in normal active subjects

10 to 20%

86

heavier weight has more tissue to what

distribute heat

87

training should be geared toward improving

VO2 max, lactate threshold, and running economy

88

how much of energy expenditure appears as heat

70 to 80%

89

what are pyrogens

proteins or toxins from bacteria

90

what is radiation

transfer of heat via infrared rays

91

how to find heat index

relative humidity added to air temp

92

shift in hypothalamic set point is due to

fever

93

which factor in wet bulb globe temp is most important

WET due to coefficient

94

if you have the inability to lose heat what happens

higher core temp and risk of hyperthermia and heat injury

95

what happens if body core temp goes below 34 degrees

may caused slowed metabolism and arrhythmias

96

what is a way to warm up

dynamic stretching

97

what is evaporation

heat from skin converts to water (sweat) to water vapor

98

what is homeotherms

constant body temp

99

heat acclimation reduces what

the risk of heat injury

100

can you still thermoregulate in old age

yes

101

decreased thermotolerance with age due to

deconditioning with age, lack of heat acclimatization, heat can put stress on heart/cardiovascular system

102

heat production is either

voluntary or involuntary

103

the anterior hypothalamus responds to increased core temp by what

commencement of sweating and increased blood flow, all deal with heat loss

104

the enzymes and proteins destroyed by going above 45 degrees does what

ones related to ATP production and shutting down ATP production, no longer bioactive

105

what does reversibility mean

when training is stopped, the training effect is quickly lost

106

what are the purpose of training principles

training program should match the anaerobic and aerobic demands of the sport

107

if ambient temp increases why lower convective and radiant heat loss

due to decreased skin to room temp gradient, reduced heat loss from convection is made up by evaporation

108

VO2 max and improving it

blood flow and oxygen extraction/utilization

109

lactate threshold and improving it

buffering capacity/ fat oxidation

110

running economy and improving it

force production/ red blood cell mass

111

best way to improve VO2

use interval and high intensity training

112

how will lactate threshold improve

need to get to high intensity to reach lactate

113

running economy can be improved by

technique and strength

114

what is interval training

repeated exercise bouts separated by brief recovery periods

115

the work interval in interval training should be

distance to be covered, intensity: 85-100% hr max, greater than 60 sec to improve VO2 max

116

what should the rest interval be like during interval training

light activity such as walking, 1:1 ratio of work to rest

117

number of interval sets and reps for interval training

depends on purpose of training and fitness level, for sport it should match sport/positional demands

118

what is the VO2max and HRmax for long,slow duration exercise

57% VO2 max, 70% HR max or lower

119

long slow distance training is based off of

the idea that training improvements are based on volume of training

120

is more always better when it comes to long distance training

no, 1.5 hours a day is better than 3 hours

121

high intensity exercise consists of

at or slightly above lactate threshold, 80 -100% VO2max

122

how can you monitor intensity during high intensity continuous exercise

HR

123

where on the VO2 max and intensity graph is where you start turning from fat to carbs

65%

124

what is the sweet spot for the VO2 max and intensity graph

80 to 85% beyond this there is a decline bc you cant build up duration

125

why do people skip the middle zone

mod intensity work is just intense enough to inflict damage so it slows down recovery but not intense enough to help increase VO2 max

126

why not altitude train

lower training intensity at altitude may result in de-training

127

what is the best plan with training and altitiude

live high, train low, spend rest time in altitude because increases RBC volume and O2 transport capacity of blood

128

most injuries are a result of

over training

129

what type of overtraining is there

short term, high intensity exercise and prolonged, low intensity exercise

130

what is the 10% rule

increase intensity or duration less than or equal to 10% per week

131

what are other injury risk factors

strength and flexibility imbalance, footwear, malalignment, poor running surface, disease

132

how to improve ATP-PC system

short distance/work to use this system, short (5 to 10 sec)/ high intensity work intervals with 30 to 60 sec rest intervals

133

how to improve glycolytic system

short (20 to 60 sec) high intensity work intervals

134

what is isometric or static training

application of force without joint movement, great for rehab or attacking specific weak point during movement

135

what is dynamic or isotonic training

includes variable exercise, Nautilius

136

what is isokinetic training

exertion of force at constant speed, best for research and rehab

137

what are the categories of strength training exercises

isometric, dynamic, isokinetic

138

how to increase muscle mass

hypertrophy and hyperplasia

139

what is hypertropy

increase muscle fiber diameter (increase protein deposit)

140

what is responsible for most of the increase in muscle size

hyperplasia

141

what are the general strength training principles

intensity, number of sets and reps, freq

142

what is the general strength training principle for intensity

8 to 12 RM

143

what is the general strength training principle for number of sets

2+ sets but not over 10

144

what is the general strength training principle for frequency

2-4 days per week (beginner) or 4 to 6 days if using split routines

145

what is periodization of strength training

systematic variation of volume and intensity over time

146

periodization achieves optimal gain in

strength, power, motor, performance, and/or hypertrophy

147

what is linear periodization

shift from high volume/low intensity to low volume/high intensity training

148

which is better free weight or machines

similar outcomes

149

argument for free weights

produce greater strength gains, greater movement variability and specificity, force control of balance and stabilization

150

arguments against free weights

potential for injury, proper lifting tech required, spotters needed

151

combining strength and endurance training leads to

lower gains in strength than strength training alone

152

if doing both strength and endurance training what needs to happen

do them on opposite days to reduce fatigue but on same day strength first and endurance last

153

which side is more affected strength or endurance

strength

154

is there difference for men and women when it comes to short term strength training (neural)

no but men exhibit greater hypertrophy as a result of long term training

155

what is the strength related capacity of the cross sectional area of muscle in men and women

3-4 kg of force per cm2 of muscle

156

are men stronger than women

if man and woman untrained yes, 50% strong in upper body, 30% stronger in lower body

157

when does DOMS appear

24 to 48 hours after exercise

158

what happens during DOMS

due to microscopic tears in muscle fiber or connective tissue, results in cellular degradation and inflammatory response

159

what type of exercises cause more damage to muscle

eccentric- stretch myosin head and pulls it apart

160

how to avoid DOMS

slowly begin a specific exercise over 5 to 10 training sessions

161

steps leading to DOMS

strenuous muscle contraction results in muscle damage, membrane damage occurs, Ca2+ leaks out of SR and collects in mitochondria, results in inflammatory response, edema and histamines stimulate pain receptors

162

what cause the pain after exercise

histamine and edema

163

what type of histamines are using in inflammatory process of DOMS

prostaglandins/histamines

164

when Ca2+ leaks out of SR what does it do

inhibits ATP production (peripheral fatigue), activates proteases which degrade contractile proteins

165

what are proteases

break down protein

166

what are the three theories for the repeated bout effect

neural, connective tissue and cellular theory

167

what the is the neural theory

recruitment of larger number of muscle fibers, decrease the amount of force placed on one muscle fiber

168

what is the connective tissue theory

increased connective tissue to protect muscle

169

what is the cellular theory

synthesis of protective proteins (sarcomeres) within muscle fiber

170

is there evidence to show that flexibility reduces injury

no

171

stretching exercises will help improve

flexibility and efficiency of movement

172

what are the two types of stretching

static and dynamic

173

what is static stretching

continuously holding a stretch position, preferred technique bc less chance of injury or soreness, less muscle spindle activity

174

what is dynamic stretching

ballistic stretching movements, active ROM/mobility using muscle contraction

175

what is proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation

preceding a static stretch with isometric contraction of muscle being stretched which stimulates golgi tendon organ

176

off season conditioning is like

prevent fat gain, maintain muscular strength and endurance, maintain bone and ligament integrity, maintain skill level

177

preseason conditioning is like

8 to 12 weeks prior to comp, increase to max the energy system used in particular sports, going to try to prevent injury

178

in season conditioning is like

maintenance on fitness level, may incorporate periodized techniques, take volume down but keep intensity or move it up

179

what are the common training mistakes

overtraining, undertraining, performing non specific exercise, failure to schedule a long term training plan, failure to taper before a performance

180

what are symptoms of overtraining

elevated HR and blood lactate levels, loss in body weight, chronic fatigue, psychological staleness, multiple colds or sore throats, decrease in performane

181

what symptom shows up first in overtraining

psychological staleness

182

what symptom shows up last in overtraining

decrease in performance

183

what is tapering

short term reduction in training load prior to competition

184

purpose of tapering

allows muscles to resynthesize glycogen and heal from training induced damage

185

what does tapering help

improves performance in both strength and endurance events