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What is the primary substance of rhetorical persuasion?



What are the four uses of rhetoric according to Aristotle?

1)prevent the unjust from prevailing
2)persuade the unteachable
3)learn how to argue both sides
4)defend yourself


What are two characteristics does rhetoric have so that it is considered an art?

Rhetoric has
1)some people are naturally good at it
2)some people come by it easily
3)and it can be applied to any subject


What are the five uses of eloquence and rhetoric according to John piper?

Awaken sensitivity
Speak memorable
Gain sympathy
Increase power
Keep interest


Write Aristotle's definition of rhetoric Word for Word

Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty of observing in any given case be available means of persuasion


What three abilities must an orator have and their corresponding parts of rhetoric?

1) reasonable logic
2)understand human character and goodness in the various forms
3) to understand the emotions



Assemblyman politician, future, persuade/dissuade, expediency or harm



Judge or jury, past, attack/defend, justice/injustice



Observers, present, praise/censure, honor or dishonor


What are the four definitions of happiness

1) prosperity combined with virtue
2) Independence of life
3) Secure enjoyment of the maximum of pleasure
4) good condition of property and body


What are the 16 parts of happiness

1) good birth 2)good children 3)plenty of friends 4) good friends 5) plenty of children 6)good luck 7) virtue 8)wealth 9) happy old age


List scripture references that show a biblical perspective on happiness

Proverbs 3:13


How does Aristotle view the importance of happiness?

It's helpful in persuading men because men do what makes them happy and they don't do what won't make them happy. It's like forensic oratory because you can persuade someone to do something and tell them it will make them happy.


What is Aristotle mean by goodness?

1)that which ought to be chosen for its own sake
2)that for the sake of which we choose something else


List of things that are admittedly good that are not already included in the parts of happiness



List things that are admittedly good that are not already included in the parts of happiness

Justice, magnanimity


List things which are likely to be good but might not be

1) that which is sought after by men
2) that which is good


Given example of two opposite things each being considered a greater good

Harder thing to do versus the easier thing to do


What are four types of government and their respective over arching values

Democracy and freedom, oligarchy wealth, aristocracy maintenance of education, monarchy


According to Cicero what are the tones of delivery by category and subcategory?

Under the conversational tone are one dignified two explicative three narrative four facetious under debate is one broken two sustained under amplification is one hortatory two pathetic


Identify the 9 virtues, noble actions, and several ways to heighten praise

Justice courage temperance magnificence magnanimity liberality gentleness prudence wisdom

Things productive of virtue are noble, things are noble for which the reward is simply honor, actions whose advantage maybe enjoyed after death, actions done for the sake of others, things are noble for which men's drive anxiously without feeling fear, avenge oneself, victory, honor

1they are the only one who does it. 2he does it best. 3when he did it. 4consistent with his character (they do it all the time). 5compare to famous men. 6examples


How does Aristotle define wrongdoing?

Wrong-doing is an injury voluntarily inflicted contrary to law.


Map the causes of wrong action

Voluntary. Involuntary
Habit/reasoning Chance/necessity


Explain how "pleasure" relates to a forensic oratory?

People commit wrong to feel pleasure or to inflict pain.


Why do people commit wrong acts, according to Aristotle

They commit crimes because they think they will get away with it or they will commit the crime because they think that committing the crime will outway the effects of not committing the crime. NO SELF CONTROL


What are the two kinds of law?

Particular law and universal law
Particular law is that which each community lays down and applies to its own members. Universal law is the law of nature.


What is equity and what does it bid us do?

It makes up for the defects of the communities written code of law. It is the word of justice which goes beyond the written law.


Define emotions

The emotions are all those feelings that so change man As to affect their judgments and are also attended by pain or pleasure


What three things must one conveyed to establish ethos

Good sense
Good moral character
And good will.


Describe two techniques that might be helpful in arousing any emotion.

Stories tones delivery expression