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Flashcards in Test One Deck (44):
1

How to theories and data form empirical inquiry

Using data in relation to the theory to form a conclusion

2

Theory

Statements that describes general principles about how variables relate

3

Data

Set of observations

4

Basic research

General body of knowledge

5

Transitional research

Uses variables from basic research to develop and test for treatments

6

Applied research

Targets real work problems; cancer, depression

7

Why do we have peer-review

Quality control, someone can say it is a good study

8

Empirical VS popular

Empirical: writer by experts, peer-review, not advertised

Popular- written by journalists, editor review not panel of experts, advertised

9

5 ways intuition is biased

Swayed by a good story
Persuaded by what easily comes to mind
Failing to think about what we cant see
Focusing on the evidence we like best
Bias about being bias

10

Advantages of research over intuition and experience

Research is based on theory

Intuition - biased
Experience- doesn’t have a comparison group

11

What are the sections in an empirical journal

Title
Abstract
Keywords
Methods
Results
Discussion
Reference

12

What is a measured variable

Observed and recorded

13

What is a manipulated variable

Researcher controlled

14

What is a conceptual variable

Abstract concepts

15

What is a operational variable

Turning conceptual into manipulated variables

16

Association

Two variables go together

17

Causal

One variable is responsible for the other

18

Frequency

Describe a rate or degree of a single variable

19

Positive association

Both go up

20

Negative association

One up and one down

21

Zero association

Nothing changes

22

Association verbs

Linked to
Higher risk for
Associated with
Correlated with
Prefers
More/less likely to
May predicts
Tied to
Goes with

23

Causal association

Cause
Effect
Promotes reduces
May curb
Prevents
Exacerbates
Distracts
Changes
Fights
May lead to
Worsen
Makes
Increases
Sometimes makes
Trims
Hurts
Adds

24

Internal validity

Relationship between one variable and another are correlated rather than another outside variable responsible for the change

25

3 principles of the Belmont report

Respect for persons
Beneficence
Justice

26

Applying the principle of respect for persons

Briefing participant before the study starts and protection of children,prisoners, disabled individuals

27

Applying principle of beneficence

How will the study effect each participant and if it is a greater positive effect for society

28

Applying the principle of justice

Selecting more than one type of demographics

29

8 APA ethical standards

Informed consent
Respect fo persons
Beneficence
Justice
IR bored
Deception
Debriefing
Research misconduct

30

What is deception and when is it okay in a study

When researcher withholds some information from the participant.

Good when it doesn’t harm the participant but will impact the study

31

Debriefing

When deception is practiced and after they study they are told everything. Helps to keep the participants fully informed

32

Operationalizing

Taking a variable and making into a operational definition

Gender- researcher guessing gender by the sounds of their voice over the phone

33

3 ways of operationalizes variables

Self-report
Observational
Physiological

34

Self-report

Recording peoples answers to questions about themselves in a questionnaire or interview

35

Observational

Recording observable behavior or physical traces of behaviors

36

Physiological

Recording biological measures usually with equipment

37

Validity vs reliability

Reliability - collect data to see if it is consistent
Validity - established with subjective judgments, usually with s art pots

38

3 types of reliability

Test-retest
Interater
Internal

39

Correlation coefficient R

Test-retest : +.5 higher
Interrater: +.7 higher
Internal consistency : cronbach’s alpha

40

Interrater reliability

Consistent scores are obtained no mater who measures the variable

41

Test-retest reliability

Consistent scores every time uses the measure

42

Internal reliability

Participant give consistent patterns of answers no matter how the researcher changes them

43

Covarience validity

Extent to which two variables are observed to go together

44

Temporal precedence validity

Means it come first in time before other variables