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Flashcards in Test Qs Deck (49):
1

FepA

22-stranded transmembrane beta barrel protein (transport Iron)

2

RTK's ligands/do what

ligands are growth factors and mem bound ligands and they phoshorylate stuff deactivated by protein tyrosine phosphatase
-have intrinsic enzymatic activity

3

what turns on LPL (lipoprotein lipase)?

apoC and insulin

4

MAP kinase pathway

Ras-GTP (active state) phosphoylate RAF which activate MEK activates ERK which activates transcription factos

5

Types of Intermediate filaments name the location:
Nuclear Lamins:
Vimentinlike proteins:
Keratins:
Nueronal:

NL: nuclear lamina of Euk cells
VP: many cells of mesenchymal origin/muscle /glial/neurons/
Keratins:epithelial cells and derivatives hair nails
N: neurons

6

Endoderm

• The inner layer
• Gives rise to epithelium lining internal organs like the digestive tract, pharynx, trachea, lungs, bladder, and urethra

7

What nucleates microtubules?

Gamma tubulin ring on alpha sup end - end

8

Porin

16-stranded transmembrane beta barrel protein

9

Statins inhibit what

HMGA coa reductase

10

cGMP targets and made by

Synthesis
Formed from GTP by guanylyl cyclase
Degraded to GMP by phosphodiesterase
Activation
Activates protein kinases, ion channels and phosphodiesterases

11

apoB48 associated with

chylomicron

12

ApoB100 associated with....

VLDL

13

Difference between carbomyl phosphate synthetase deficiency and ornathine transcarobylase deficiency

both decreased BUN but ornathine will have increased levels of orotic acid and uracil

14

Tyrosine Kinase associated receptors ligands/function

Ligands
Cytokines, Interleukins, Integrins
cytokine receptors activated thorugh jak stat

15

Camp targets

protein kinase a

16

Bacteriorhodopsin: Proton Pump made up of Seven α helices

Proton Pump made up of Seven α helices

17

mesoderm

• the middle layer
• Gives rise to blood, heart, kidneys, gonads, bones, muscle, and connective tissue.

18

tgf-beta

Protein-serine/threonine kinases activated when bound to TGF-β
Phosphorylate Smads
Smads translocate to nucleus and act as transcription factors

19

ion channel coupled receptors (ionotropic receptors) ligand/do what?

ligands are NT regulate ion flux

20

PI 3 kinase

PIP2 to PIP3 which activates AKT which leads to cell survival and protein sythesis

21

Notch ligands/function

liagnd=delta proteolytic notch cuts off tail after activation which activates transcription factors.

22

jak/stat pathway

cytokine receptor activates jak phoshorylate Stat which dimerizes then head to nucleas to activate transcription factors

23

activation GTPase Rac leads to

Activation of small GTPase Rac leads to actin nucleation by ARP complex and other alterations to accessory proteins

24

What nucleates actin?

ARP complex and formins

25

kynesins go to which end

positive

26

GPCR ligands/do what?

ligands=pep hormones Neurotransmitters eicosinoids gdp binds alpha unit then once ligand binds gdp becomes gtp then activates g proteins
Gs activates adenylly cyclase
Gi inhibits adenylly cyclase
Gq activates PKC

27

Ectoderm

• The outer layer
• Give rise to epidermis, brain and nervous system

28

glycocalyx

sugars attached near ECF membrane surface that protect mem from mechanical and chemical damage

29

alpha actinin function

αactinin cross links actin filaments into loose bundles, allowing motor protein myosin II to participate in assembly

30

Fibrin function

Fibrin cross links actin filaments into tight bundles, exclusing myosin II

31

Patched ligand/function

ligand is hedghog activates smoothen which inhibits phosphorylation of ci proteins allows for gene transcription

32

OMPLA

12-stranded transmembrane beta barrel protein

33

How many dimers in mature form of intermediate filament?

16 dimers

34

o BMP-4

o Induces ventralization of mesoderm

35

OmpA protein

8-stranded transmembrane beta barrel protein

36

RHO

regulates cytoskeloton changes-Activated through Integrins or growth factor receptors
-Promote actin polymerization
Promote phosphorylation of myosin

37

Catastrophin function Kinesin-13

increases the shrinking mechanism for microtubules shorter more dynamic

38

apoA

activates LCAT

39

Frizzled ligand/function

ligand is wnt once active binds complex that degraded beta catenin which stops degredation beta catenin activates transcription factors

40

XMAP215 function

stabilizes growing end of microtubules allowing for growth longer less dynamic

41

dyneien go toward which end of microtubules

Negative

42

Activation of GTPase Rho leads to

nucleation of actin filaments by formins and increases contraction of myosin II, promoting formation of contractile actin bundles such as stress fibers

43

phospholipase c does what

hydrolizes pip2 to ip3 and dag activation which PKC ip3=which opens ca channels

44

Vegetal cells induce

induce mesoderm formation

45

Death receptors/ligand/function

Ligands
Cytokines, growth factors or Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs)
Activate extrinsic apoptosis or inflammation

46

NF-κB

TNG binds death recptor(TNF receptor) activate lkBeta kinase lkbeta is phoshorylated marked by ubiquitin degrates NFkB head to nucleas to act as transcriptiion factor

47

serine/threoine ligand/funciton

ligand=tgf-beta exists as monomer then froms dimer then one side phosphorylates the other then phosphorulates smad which activates gene transcription

48

Integrins ligands function

Clustering of integrins induces autophosphorylation of FAKs
Phosphorylation sites serve as binding sites for signaling proteins/Induce proliferation, gene expression and survival

ligands are growth factors

49

disulphide bonds in ECM Vs Cytosol

ECM has disuphide bonds but in cytosol general redused to sh less disulphide bonds because of redusing enviroment