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Building the organism 12001 > Tetrapods and Plants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tetrapods and Plants Deck (46)
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What are tetrapods?

Tetrapods are the first vertebrate to move on land during the Devonian.


Describe the key characteristics of the Cambrian-Silurian period

1) High Sea Level 2) Hot and dry climates 3) High level of CO2 4) Continent coalescing to form the supercontinent Pangea 5) First vascular plants evolved in the SIlurian


Describe the key characteristics of the Devonian- Carboniferous period:

1) Pangea is completely assembled 2) Terrestrial communities change dramatically due to the appearence of nonvascular large plants 3) Ancestors of gymnosperms appear 4) Large glaciers formed on the Southern Land masses. 5) The terrestrial lineage splits into two.


What are the two terrestrial vertebrate lineage formed in the carboniferous?

1) Amphibians 2) Amniotes


What are amniotes?

Vertebrates with well protected eggs that can be laid on dry environments (or are internal sometimes)


What does quasiterrestrial means?

An organism that lives in both aquatic and terrestrial environments.


What are the six main adaptations of tetrapods?

1) Support 2) Movement and locomotio 3) Feeding 4) Breathing and circulation 5) Senses and water balance 6) Reproduction


In which way support has adapted to terrestrial condition?

There has been a transition from sagittal support to axial support and the skeleton developed into a suspension bridge.


In which way movement and locomotion adapted to terrestrial condition?

-The pectoral girdle became separated in early tetrapods -Homerus and Ulna extended in lenght -Digits numbers is reduced and digits get shorter.


In which way feeding adapted to terrestrial condition?

There has been a transition from a kinetic skull too jaws and teeth


In which way breathing and circulation adapted to terrestrial condition?

By developing of lungs and two new ways of breathing: Coastal Ventilation and Bucal Pumping.


Describe coastal ventilation:

Ribs and coastal muscles expand and contracts the lungs.


Describe buccal pumping:

Air is sucked into the mouth and troath and then rammed into the lungs by raising the floor of the mouth.


Why did early tetrapods have a poor sense of hearing in the air?

Becuase even if they had stapes, they were too massive to hear high frequency sounds.


In which way reproductive methods adapted to life on land?

Early tetrapods layed eggs in water and thei first larval stage was aquatic. After some times the tadpoles metamorphose into the adult form.


What are the 6 characteristics of tetrapods?

1) Stronger backbone 2) Muscles to support the body in air. 3) Muscles to elevate the head. 4) Stronger shoulders and hip girdles. 5) Modified ear structure to detect airbone sounds. 6) More protective rib cage.


What are the six synapomorphies of land plants (also shared with green algae)?

1) Chlorophyll a and b 2) Starch as storage product 3) Cellulose in their cell walls 4) Retain their eggs in the parental organism 5) Plasmodesmata join two adjacent cells. 6) Growth is branching and apical.


What are the sevenevolutionary innovation of land plants?

1) The cuticle 2) Stomata 3) Gametangia 4) Embryo enclosed in a protective structure 5) Pigments that protects against UV radiation. 6) Spore walls containing sporopollenin. 7) Mutualistic relationship with fungi that promote the absorption of minerals and water from the soil.


Describe the cuticle:

Waxy covering that avoid water loss


Describe stomata:

Small closable openings in stems and leaves that allow gas exchange.


Describe gametangia:

Multicellular organs that enclose plant gametes and prevent their drying.


What are the characteristics of nonvascular plants?

They have a thin cuticle and lack a stystem to conduct water throughout the body. Lack leaves, stems and roots.


What are the two hallmaraks of alternation of generations?

1) The life cycles includes both a multicellular diploid phase (sporophyte) and a multicellular haploid phase (gametophyte). 2) Gametes are produced by mitosis whereas meiosis produces spores.


Describe the archegonium:

A multicellular flask-shaped femal sex organ with a long neck and a swollen base which produces a single egg.


Describe antheridium:

A male sex organ in which sperm are produced in large numbers.


Describe the characteristics of vascular plants:

They contain a developed vascular system constitued of tissues specialiez in transporting water and mineral from one part to another.


What are tracheids?

They are the principal water conducting component of the xylem.


Why are tracheids important for the invasion of land?

1) These cells provides a pathway for transport of water and mineral nutrients from a source of supply to regions of need in plants. 3) The cell wall of tracheids provide a structural support that allow plants to grow taller and reach sunlight.


What is a seed?

A plant embryio together with a food source sorrounded by a protective coat.


What are the two adaptations that allow vascular plants to be successful?

The cuticle and the protective layers for gametangia.