Flashcards in Texts Deck (60):
What is the difference between a simile and a metaphor?
A simile is "like" something else, a metaphor is "as" or "is".
Morphologic rules.. (just an example, don't think too hard)
"blurk" versus "blurks"- fictional character -knowing morphologic rules instead of past experience.
deal with themes, characters, plot, and literary devices used by the author (the storyline, the meaning behind the work, description, etc)
relate to the format and linguistic devices employed by the author. (Paragraphing, way it is structured, technical)
Both literary and structural elements contribute to what?
a work's meaning.
How can works be organized?
In a variety of ways (alphabetically, geographically, chronologically, thematically, etc.)
where is the index? what does it contain?
often at the end of a book, contains cross-references.
what's in the bibliography?
lists the different sources for that work.
what are footnotes?
gives readers more information about that page- maybe a word explained or defined.
what helps assist readers in navigating and understanding a text?
footnotes, table of contents, index, bibliography, etc.
What is the plot?
Plot is the action or events of a story.
what kind of plot do folk tales have?
What is the classic structure of a story?
begins with 1. exposition (learn about the setting and characters)
2. inciting incident (something happens. what starts the main conflict) which leads to 3. rising action (as the battle goes on, including reversals- goes back and forth who is getting the upper hand, protagonist or antagonist- and reveals new info-) then resolves with a climax (one of them wins) often followed by a denounement (falling action)
what is a denouement?
Characterization is based on...
physical appearance, occupation, family history, etc. but TRUE CHARACTER is revealed by the choices the character makes.
What are stock characters?
requires little info to understand. Characters we are used to seeing "the hero" "the villain" or "the temptress"
what are characters who represented a particular archetype?
characters who represent a singular idea
Compassion- mother Teresa
author's attitude towards his or her subject. You can have two stories of the same events, but one can be sad, the other sarcastic and funny.
the overall "feeling" created by the work. Is it light and bubbly? What's the feeling?
Point of View
is how the author or narrator sees his or her story.
Whats first person?
"I this" "I that"
What's second person POV?
You did this, you did that, like choose your own adventure books
He did this, she did that.
Whats an omniscient character?
one who knows everything, what other people are thinking.
whats are limited characters?
limited- only knows main character
reliable- they are able to tell us what is happening
unreliable- character is insane or has a problem comprehending
What is Irony?
Verbal? Situational? Dramatic?
an event that is the opposite of what would be expected or a meaning that is opposite of what is stated. (Sarcasm is a form of verbal irony)
Situational irony is when the actions produce the opposite result of what was intended. Dramatic irony- we know something as an audience, but the character doesn't know.
What is a paradox?
something that is self-contradictory (plot paradox- going back in time and killing your grandfather, but wait- wouldn't you not have been born? :) It's a paradox! )
creates suspense by using a reader to anticipate events to come. In Jaws, the music is the foreshadowing. You know something bad is going to happen.
Monologues versus Soliloquies
are given by a single uninterrupted speaker, but monologues are speeches given to others, while soliloquies occur when a character is alone and speaking his or her thoughts aloud.
What are Analogies?
comparisons between two things. when something is something. direct comparison.
can take the form of metaphors (to-be-verb He WAS a raging bull) versus similies (uses like or as "He was LIKE a raging bull)
repetition of a specific sound in two words, usually the end sound.
Internal- within a single line of a poem
external- ABAC one word at the end of one line might rhyme with one in a different line
What are slant rhymes?
words that kind of sound similar but don't rhyme. like "Tree" and "Breed"
arrangement of words in a certain rhythmic measure (basically the rhyme or beat. The Iambic Petameter- green eggs and ham beat)
(how are they organizing ideas, is this thing different than this thing? include series, contrast, and repetition.)
include scenes, acts, chapters, lines, and stanzas (group of lines in a poem) (work broken up into units)
the repetition of certain sounds to achieve an effect. Alliteration may take the form of assonance or consonance. "Silly Sally Sells Sea Shells by the Seashore."
include novels, short stories, folk and fairy tales, poetry, among others (types of writing)
Native American folk tales...
teach a lesson or answer questions about the origins of life and the universe. They are an oral tradition, so they usually have a simple plot structure (easy to memorize)
They also often include anthropomorphic (having human characteristics) animals and a character who is a trickster. (Raven or a coyote).
What is the Theme of a story?
dominant idea or meaning of a literary work (what is the work really about)
Implicit versus Explicit themes?
Implicit- one you understand for yourself
explicit- the theme is stated explicitly in the work
Whats a good technique when searching for the theme of a work?
Ask yourself, "What get's resolved in the story's climax?" Does good always conquer evil?
Literal versus Figurative meaning in a text.
Meanings in a text may be literal or figurative.
Literal meaning is the strict, direct meaning of a word or phrase.
Figurative meaning is emblematic and often derived from a metaphor or simile
When searching for meaning...
Identify SYMBOLS (the man with a creature on his back, symbolic for grief) within a text, also consider whether the work may be allegorical (Most works are not. Work where EVERYTHING stands for something else Ex: Animal Farm)
consider Implicit and explicit themes...
A character might explicitly state a theme, but the implicit theme might be something else entirely.
are among the oldest forms of literature and date back to ancient Greece. The epic, the lyric, and some romances are examples of early poetry.
Is a very long narrative POEM usually about a single HEROIC person. Have a monumental sweep, embrace the essence of an entire nation, often including mythical forces that influence inevitable battles and conflicts. Epics include the Odyssey and the Iliad, which were written by homer and embrace Greek national themes, as well as Beowulf, set in Scandinavia.
What is a Lyric?
the lyric is related to the epic, but is shorter and presents profound feelings or ideas. The term elegy and ode both refer to lyric poems. Called Rondeaus when sung by French.
What is a Legend?
a heroic story or collection of stories about a specific person or persons. They are presented as fact but are a combo of fact and fiction.
What is a Satire?
exposes the frailty of the human condition through wit, irony, mockery, sarcasm or ridicule.
What is a doggerel?
A work that features awkward or rough verbiage. Most often this clumsy verse is the result of an inept writer, although it may occasionally be intended as humor.
Whats an Ad hominem?
Arguing against a person to discredit their position, rather than an argument against the position itself.
Whats a Post hoc or ergo propter hoc
falsely stating that one event followed another is caused by the first event. (faulty cause and effect)
Whats a Non Sequitur?
A conclusion that does not logically follow from the facts.
An irrelevant point, divert attention from the position under discussion.
expression in which the characters, story and setting actually represent other people, setting or abstract ideas. (like animal farm) Aesop's Fables uses allegory to represent moral or ethical ideas. Parables such as the Prodigal Son use allegory to teach us a lesson.
the actual meaning of a word.
a figure of speech in which the inoffensive term is substituted for one that may be offensive or cause distress ex: saying "went to heaven" instead of "die"
figure of speech in which a drastic overstatement or understatement is used. Hyperbole may be used to emphasize a point or for comic effect. "You are the worst person who ever lived" you might say to a friend after they beat you at something.
figure of speech that refers to words that imitate natural sounds. "Buzzz buzz buzz goes the bumble bee"